Feedback
- 100% +
Font size

Climate change and health

Over the past 50 years, human activities, especially the burning of fossil fuels, have accumulated carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the lower atmosphere in sufficient quantities to retain excess heat and affect the global climate.

Over the past 130 years, the world temperature has increased by about 0.85°C. over the past 25 years, the rate of global warming has accelerated, exceeding 0.18°C per decade[1].

Sea levels are rising, glaciers are melting and rainfall patterns are changing. Extreme weather events are becoming more intense and frequent.

What is the impact of climate change on health?

Despite the fact that global warming may bring some local benefits, such as reducing the number of deaths in places with a temperate climate and the growth of food production in certain areas, the overall impact of climate change on health, apparently, will be the vast majority of cases negative. Climate change affects social and environmental health factors — clean air, safe drinking water, sufficient food and safe shelter.

Strong heat

Extremely high temperatures directly result in death from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, especially among the elderly. For example, during the heat wave in summer 2003, more than 70,000 additional deaths were recorded in Europe[2].

In addition, high temperatures in the air raise levels of ozone and other pollutants, exacerbating cardiovascular and respiratory diseases.

In addition, levels of pollen from plants and other air allergens increase during extreme heat. They can cause asthma, which affects about 300 million people. It is expected that the continued increase in temperature will increase the burden.

Natural disasters and changing rainfall patterns

Worldwide, the number of weather-related disasters recorded has more than tripled since the 1960s. Every year, these disasters result in over 60 000 deaths, mainly in developing countries.

Rising sea levels and increasingly extreme weather events will destroy homes, health facilities and other basic services. More than half of the world’s population lives within 60 km of the sea. It can happen that people will be forced to leave their places, which in turn will increase the risk of a variety of health consequences — from mental disorders to infectious diseases.

The increasingly changing nature of precipitation patterns is likely to have an impact on freshwater resources. Lack of safe water can jeopardize hygiene and increase the risk of diarrhoeal diseases, which kill nearly 760,000 children under 5 years of age each year. In extreme cases, water scarcity leads to drought and famine. By the end of the 21st century, climate change could lead to an increase in the number and intensity of drought events at the regional and global levels.[1].

The frequency and intensity of floods are also increasing, and the frequency and intensity of extreme precipitation will also increase during this century. [1] due to flooding of pollution of freshwater supplies, increasing the risk of diseases transmitted through water, and produce spots favorable for breeding of insect disease vectors such as mosquitoes. Floods also lead to drowning and physical injuries, destruction of homes and disruption of health services.

Rising temperatures and changing rainfall patterns are likely to reduce basic food production in many of the poorest regions to 50% by 2020 in some African countries[1]. This will increase the prevalence of malnutrition and malnutrition, which currently kill 3.1 million people each year.

Infection models

Climatic conditions have a strong impact on water-borne diseases and diseases transmitted by insects, molluscs and other cold-blooded animals.

Climate change is likely to prolong transmission seasons of vector-borne diseases and alter their geographical areas. For example, climate change in China is projected to significantly expand the area where cases of schistosomiasis-a disease transmitted by mollusks — occur[3].

The climate has a strong impact on malaria. Malaria transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes kills almost 600,000 people a year, mostly African children under 5 years of age. Aedes mosquitoes, which carry dengue, are also highly sensitive to climatic conditions. Studies suggest that climate change will also increase the risk of dengue infection.

Health impact assessment

The assessment of the health effects of climate change can only be very approximate. However, the who estimated, taking into account only the range of possible health effects, and based on assumptions about continued economic growth and progress in the field of health, it was concluded that climate change is expected to cause approximately 250 000 additional deaths per year between 2030 and 2050, 38,000 people die due to the impact of heat on elderly 48,000 to diarrhoea, 60 000 — from malaria, and 95 000 — due to child malnutrition.[4].

Who is at risk?

Climate change will affect all groups, but some groups are more vulnerable than others. People living in small developing island States and other coastal areas, megacities, and mountainous and polar regions are particularly vulnerable.

Children, especially in poor countries, are among the most vulnerable to the health risks associated with climate change. They will be exposed to longer-term health effects. More severe health effects are also expected for older persons and people who are already ill or ill.

Areas with weak health infrastructure, mainly in developing countries, will be less able to prepare for and respond to climate change without external assistance.

The activities of WHO

Many policies and preferences of individuals have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while providing significant health benefits. For example, safe use of public transport and active movement — such as Cycling and walking as alternatives to using private cars, can reduce carbon emissions and to reduce the burden of household air pollution which causes 4.3 million deaths per year, and air pollution in the environment, which causes about 3.7 million deaths every year.

In 2015, the world health Assembly approved a new who work plan on climate change and health. It includes:

  • Partnerships: coordinate with partner agencies within the UN system and ensure that health issues are appropriately placed on the climate change agenda.
  • Awareness-raising: provide and disseminate information on the health threats posed by climate change and on opportunities to improve health by reducing carbon emissions.
  • Scientific and evidence: coordinate reviews of scientific data on the links between climate change and health and develop a global research agenda.
  • To support the adoption of retaliatory measures in the field of public health in connection with climate change: helping countries to build capacity to reduce health vulnerability in connection with climate change and improve health by reducing carbon emissions.

“Green building” in Kazakhstan: international norms will not grow in the local climate

While “green building” is gaining popularity all over the world, Kazakhstan in this sense lags behind the global market. The fact is that the use of international standards of Green construction in large-scale construction is impossible without the “green economy”.

Kazakh construction companies are ready to build “green”, Chairman of the Supervisory Board of the construction company Global Mukhit Azirbayev said. And the country has several facilities that are made according to international eco-standards: EXPO-2017 facilities and residential complex “Green quarter” in Astana, Parkview Office tower building in Almaty.

But in order for them to become more, first, it is necessary to modify the existing building codes (Snips). Secondly, the price of apartments in such residential and rental areas in business centers is higher than those built of traditional materials. Third, the green technologies used need to be maintained during the operation of buildings. And this is an additional cost for property owners.

European experience of “green building”

During one of Mr. Azirbayev’s visits to Germany to learn from the experience of the local construction companies in the field of green building, he found that the materials used in the construction process were taken into account when awarding ratings to the facilities.

— This is done in order to understand what efforts will have to be made to destroy buildings in 50-100 years of their operation. For Europeans, it is a matter of necessity because of the lack of free land in the cities. That is, the difference is that in Kazakhstan, issues of design within the framework of “green construction”are only being discussed. And the Germans are studying and implementing standards for their disposal with minimal damage to the environment. We do not even think about it,” our interlocutor said.

If Kazakh construction companies decide to apply more complex environmental standards, which again require changes to existing laws, Snips, technical regulations, they will have to adapt to domestic conditions.

— For example, in European countries, plants are planted on the facades of houses. But in the conditions of Kazakhstan’s sharply continental climate, it is problematic to apply such technology. Therefore, each element of “green building” should be studied in detail, taking into account not only the mentality, the specifics of the market, — added Mukhit Azirbayev.

But at the same time, of course, the use of international standards should not be prohibited. It should be understood that the benefits of the introduction of any environmental standards that are developed and implemented in construction, designed for the future. Quick benefits from their implementation should not be expected, so it is necessary to make calculations for the future and analyze the effect of the use of a technology over the years. And of course, the use of “green technologies” makes the estimate of construction of residential complexes more expensive.

“Green building” in Kazakhstan: the situation today

The idea of optimal use of energy sources was the reason for the international exhibition EXPO-2017 in Kazakhstan. Its theme is designated as “energy of the future” and will help to find ways of application of alternative energy sources and methods of its transportation. Ensuring a sustainable energy supply will not only enhance economic growth, but also reduce the burden on the environment.

The total area of the exhibition complex “Astana Expo-2017” is 174 hectares and will contain 38 objects. The main among them is the national pavilion of Kazakhstan. It will be built in the form of a sphere of “green” standards. The use of a double layer of high-tech glass isolates the building from the low temperature in Astana. The complex will be managed by “smart city” technology.

The optimal use of electricity will be provided by sensors that take into account the people on the territory of the facilities and calculate the amount of electricity necessary for their number. For smoothing peak loads on the power grid and the introduction of renewable energy into the infrastructure of the exhibition will apply the technology of “smart grid”. In real time, it monitors the power consumption of all large objects and automatically distributes the load on the grid.

The cost of eco-real estate

At a time when the real estate market is in crisis or stagnates, this is a minus, as it increases the final cost of the objects for the buyer. Our interlocutor could not name how much more expensive such construction will cost, since the amount of investment in energy-efficient technologies of buildings built according to Green construction standards depends on the technologies used and the complexity of the project.

– Eco-friendly houses can be slightly more expensive than those built from the usual building materials. But for their owners, the costs in the process of operation are recouped within 5-5. 5 years. That is, as practice shows, “green” construction is beneficial to both the owner of housing and the construction company.

The first buys better housing, which is safe for his health and the health of his loved ones. And the developer builds and sells objects where a square meter is more expensive than in conventional buildings, thanks to this its profit is growing.

Homsters.kz recommends:
Although many residential complexes in Kazakhstan and do not belong to the eco-projects, but the developers are trying to bring people as close to nature and clean air. Therefore, new buildings in the green zone of Astana and Almaty are not news at all. In addition to the” Green quarter ” in Astana, we picked up a few more LCD, which you may like:

BI Village Comfort-cottage village, next to the” green belt ” of Astana. Cozy townhouses and cottages, green alley with places to relax and other pleasures of country life will appeal to you and your family.

G-Park Premium residential complex is a residential complex in Astana, located near the Botanical garden. Living near the rich nature guarantees comfort and good rest.

KG River Park — one of the capital’s cottage on the river Bank. Large house plots, modern environmentally friendly building materials and only 8 km to Astana.

Concept for the transition of Kazakhstan to a “green economy”

Green economy – a new paradigm of development

In may 2013, the President approved by his decree the Concept of the country’s transition to a “green economy”.The concept laid the foundations for a deep systemic transformation of the transition to the economy of the new formation by improving the welfare, quality of life of the population of Kazakhstan and the country’s entry into the top 30 most developed countries in the world while minimizing the burden on the environment and degradation of natural resources.

The green economy implies economic diversification and further qualitative growth of GDP instead of quantitative. One of the accepted definitions of a Green Economy is ” Fair and reliable, providing a better quality of life for all, within the environmental limits of the planet.” The green economy is green technology, green GDP and green jobs for a better quality of life.

The concept of transition of the Republic of Kazakhstan to ” green economy»

Priority goal:

– improving the efficiency of use of resources (water, land, biological, etc.) and their management;

– modernization of existing and construction of new infrastructure;

– improving the well-being of the population and the quality of the environment through cost-effective ways to reduce pressure on the environment;

– improving national security, including water security.

The concept is implemented in three stages:

– 2013-2020 – optimize resource use and improve environmental performance and create green infrastructure;

– 2020-2030-transformation of the national economy focused on the careful use of water, promotion and stimulation of the development and widespread introduction of renewable energy technologies, as well as the construction of facilities based on high energy efficiency standards;

– 2030-2050 – the transition of the national economy to the principles of the” third industrial revolution”, requiring the use of natural resources, provided they are renewable and sustainable.

Measures for the transition to a “green economy” will be implemented in the following areas:

– sustainable use of water resources;

– development of sustainable and high-performance agriculture;

– energy saving and energy efficiency;

– development of electric power industry;

– waste management system, reduction of air pollution and conservation and effective management of ecosystems.

The tools for the implementation of specific tasks of the Concept by sectors of the economy are the existing policy documents, taking into account changes and additions to the implementation of the main directions of the Concept, such as:

– Program on development of agro-industrial complex in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2013-2020 ” Agribusiness-2020»,

– State program on forced industrial-innovative development of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2010-2014,

– State program of education development of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020,

– Territorial development programs, strategic plans of state bodies,

– Branch program “Zhasyl Damu” for 2010-2014

and other sectoral programmes that will be adjusted and that will give new emphasis on issues such as improving air quality, managing production and consumption waste, combating desertification, land degradation and improving soil fertility, developing fisheries, aquaculture and fish reproduction.

In addition, it is planned to develop a state program on water resources management for 2014-2040. According to estimates, by 2050, the transformation of the “green economy” will further increase GDP by 3%, create more than 500 thousand new jobs, create new industries and services, provide high standards of quality of life for the population.

To implement the concept, the Government approved an action Plan for 2013-2020. The plan provides:

– adoption of a number of measures to modernize the waste management system and reduce air pollution;

– improvement of water resources management system;

– implementation of the principles of sustainable agriculture;

– implementation of measures aimed at improving energy efficiency and energy conservation, as well as

– modernization “energocompany” and the development of renewable sources of energy.

On the field of water resources management

The country’s development strategy until 2050 sets the goals of ensuring stable water supply to the population by 2020 and agriculture by 2030. By 2050, all problems with water resources should be solved. In order to implement these tasks, the state program of water resources management is being developed.

In order to achieve the required quality and sustainable supply of drinking water and standards for municipal wastewater treatment, it is necessary to restore the infrastructure of public utilities, update related standards and ensure their compliance.

On the development of fisheries

As part of the action Plan for the implementation of the Concept for the transition of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the “green economy”, next year will be developed a program of development of fisheries until 2020. The program will provide for the implementation of a set of measures aimed at the conservation, reproduction and rational use of the resource potential of fishery water bodies, increasing their productivity, the development of commercial fish farming and processing, taking into account the world practice of applying the latest methods and modern technologies in fisheries.

On the development of forestry and hunting.

As part of the action Plan for the transition of Kazakhstan to a “green economy”, a program for the development of the forest industry until 2020 will be developed.

On the management of waste

A system aimed at reducing waste generation will be built, as with the growth of the economy there will be a natural increase in the production of municipal solid waste.

The program is aimed at improving the system of solid waste management, as well as taking measures to strictly comply with the requirements of environmental legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

In 2014, it is planned to develop a program of industrial waste management, which will include audits of accumulated industrial waste, the creation of infrastructure and enterprises for the processing of industrial waste.

ENERGY EFFICIENCY AS A VECTOR OF POWER DEVELOPMENT IN KAZAKHSTAN: EUROPEAN EXPERIENCE

Bela syrlybayeva-senior researcher of Kishi under the President of Kazakhstan, candidate of economic Sciences

The main fuel of the modern global economy is fossil fuels-oil, gas and coal. As a result of more than a century of intensive production, their reserves have been significantly depleted, although it is impossible to estimate the exact amount of remaining reserves at the existing level of science and technology development. Nevertheless, the potential of easily accessible deposits is decreasing every year, production costs, on the contrary, are increasing, environmental requirements are becoming more stringent. These trends make it possible to predict an increase in the prices of fossil energy resources in the medium and long term. Thus, we can say that the era of relatively cheap, affordable traditional energy carriers is coming to an end. After the catastrophic accident at the Fukushima-1 nuclear power plant in Japan, the future of nuclear power seems rather uncertain. A number of European States (Germany, Italy, Spain) have already decided to gradually close their old nuclear power plants and abandon the construction of new ones.

Renewable energy sources – that is, wind, solar, water, biomass, etc. – are offered as alternative energy capacities, and in many countries they are already successfully used. although the cost of alternative energy today is quite high compared to the energy obtained from traditional sources, and the technical capabilities, on the contrary, are much less, nevertheless, new energy technologies are actively developing in the direction of reducing costs and increasing the capacity of “green” power plants.

However, speaking of energy sources, it should be noted another –the most affordable and environmentally friendly source – is energy conservation, which has become a benchmark for development in many countries. Energy saving as a vector of development acquires today not only resource, but also environmental, economic and political importance. The introduction of energy saving principles has a positive effect in the form of increasing energy efficiency and reducing the energy intensity of the economy. Indicators of energy efficiency and energy intensity are, in turn, one of the important indicators of the competitiveness of national production. The level of energy efficiency of the national economy is one of the main criteria for assessing the international authority of the country, including in terms of the degree of favorable investment climate. Energy-saving type of development helps to reduce the degree of environmental problems, and in a situation of increasing scarcity of natural resources – investment in energy conservation becomes a full alternative to the construction of new energy facilities.

Energy saving is essentially an alternative source of energy. Thus, energy saving is an additional, affordable energy resource. Moreover, many energy-saving technologies have great investment attractiveness, they are beneficial to suppliers, consumers and investors.

It is on the way of formation and development of energy-saving “green” economy that many industrial countries are moving now.

In this regard, the experience of Spain and Norway is very interesting.

Among the EU member States, the Kingdom of Spain is considered to be a country with high energy intensity of the economy. Energy consumption in Spain exceeds the average European by 20%, which prompted the government to diversify its energy policy, actively introduce wind and solar technologies, as well as to look for ways to use energy more efficiently. According to Spanish experts, the reduction of electricity consumption by 20% through the widespread introduction of energy-saving technologies, eliminates the doubling of the number of existing nuclear reactors. Given the fact that the moratorium on the construction of nuclear power plants in Spain was introduced in 1996, the choice naturally fell on the development of energy saving and renewable energy sources .

Since March 2011, the Kingdom has introduced a package of measures designed to reduce energy consumption and reduce Spain’s significant dependence on energy imports, primarily oil and gas, thereby strengthening energy security and supporting the development of the national economy. Among the measures taken can be called the speed limit car traffic, the allocation of subsidies for the purchase of specially designed tires to reduce fuel consumption in transport, reduced prices for train tickets in order to encourage citizens to make more active use of public transport, information campaigns about energy efficiency in General and energy-efficient driving style, in particular. The widespread use of energy – saving light bulbs, limiting the operation of air conditioning systems in public buildings-also among the actions of the government aimed at saving energy.

Thanks to the policy pursued by the government, Spain has become a European leader in the development of wind and solar energy in recent years. In terms of wind power generation, Spain surpassed Germany and achieved a figure of 21% of the total electricity produced in the country. This figure is higher than the volume of electricity generated at existing nuclear power plants. Thus, we can say that energy from renewable sources becomes a real alternative to nuclear energy.

Thanks to this policy, Spain saves up to 250 million euros per month on energy imports, generating with the help of wind a volume of electricity that is sufficient to cover all the needs of neighboring Portugal. In 2010, Spain for the first time overtook France, whose energy is based on nuclear power plants, in terms of electricity exports.

In addition to the economic effect, the use of wind turbines allows to avoid annual emissions of 1.8 million tons of carbon dioxide, which is equivalent to an additional planting of 800 thousand trees each year .

The experience of Norway, which, like Kazakhstan, is a major exporter of oil, and at the same time a country with the highest standard of living, is also indicative.

A characteristic feature of the Norwegian Kingdom is the economy elevated to the rank of philosophy. Having one of the highest GDP per capita in the world (about 60 thousand dollars). This country is distinguished by a very careful attitude to the environment and natural resources, as well as a well-established state policy in the field of energy saving and energy efficiency. As one of the world leaders in oil and gas production, Norway at the state level invests heavily in the development of alternative energy. The Kingdom does not use fossil fuels to generate electricity – 99% of Norway’s electricity is generated by hydroelectric power plants, and small, built in mountainous areas that do not require flooding of vast areas and turning rivers and operating almost offline. Mini HPPs not only bring a steady income to their owners, but also act as an important factor in maintaining the viability of small settlements.

The development of energy efficiency programmes in Norway began in the late 1970s. In the 1990s, they were adjusted to take into account the liberalization of the electricity market that took place in the Kingdom in 1991 – 1992. In 2000 years is the reorganization of the governmental structures in a more narrowly focused (targeted) companies and the definition of goals for the development of renewable energy. Thus, the Norwegian experience can be described as a process of energy efficiency, taking into account all aspects of market liberalization, targeted planning and environmental protection .

It should be noted that since the end of the 1980s, the basis for the pricing of the Norwegian electricity industry has been the principle of reflecting its market value in the price of electricity. High electricity prices resulting from real costs have made investments in the energy efficiency sector more cost-effective and therefore more attractive, while low prices have not created an incentive for such investments.

Also in Norway, much attention is paid to improving the efficiency of energy-intensive industries (production of aluminum, ferroalloys) and the rational use of energy in the household and transport sectors.

In Norway, as in many other European cities, great efforts are being made to develop municipal transport and organized Cycling. Moving around in an SUV in the city center is considered bad form. This effectively solves many topical problems of modern cities-traffic jams, polluted air, lack of Parking, etc.

Since childhood, residents of the country are taught to respect their city, their country and its nature.

Thus, it can be concluded that not only Norway, but also many other European countries have managed to create an energy system that combines environmental friendliness with economic efficiency. A number of States, such as Spain, are in the process of establishing such a system. Despite the scepticism about the possibilities of renewable energy, Spain, however, has already brought its share in total generating capacity to 21%, and Sweden – to 45%.

The experience of the EU countries should be an example for Kazakhstan. The Republic, having a significant potential of fossil and renewable energy resources, currently occupies one of the last places in the world in terms of energy saving and energy efficiency of production. The specific energy intensity of Kazakhstan’s GDP is 2.5 times higher than the us, Denmark-3.5, Japan – 4 times. The relative affordability and cheapness of the energy produced created an illusion of inexhaustibility, which prevented the development of a proper culture of energy consumption and energy conservation at all stages: production, production, processing, transmission and transportation, distribution and consumption.

This situation needs to be changed. Energy conservation and development of renewable energy sources should become part of the state energy policy, as is the case in the EU. Movement in this direction, of course, is already underway. In his Address to the people of Kazakhstan in 2011, President N. Ah. Nazarbayev instructed the government to develop a Comprehensive energy efficiency plan and reduce the energy intensity of Kazakhstan’s GDP by 10% by 2015.

Successful implementation of this task requires the use of best practices to improve energy efficiency while maintaining the high rates of economic growth already tested by other countries. For example, modern lighting technology can save up to 40% of the amount of energy consumed. Many States are gradually abandoning traditional incandescent lamps and are completely switching to energy-saving fluorescent and led lighting sources.

The introduction of energy-saving technologies is one of the main tasks of the State program for the modernization of housing and communal complex of Kazakhstan. Economy and careful attitude to natural resources should begin with your own home, with every citizen of Kazakhstan.

According to experts, the potential of energy saving in the Kazakh economy is about 30% of the total energy consumption. This is a significant reserve that allows us to improve our environment and save billions of tons of coal and oil. In this regard, the companies producing energy-saving products, the task is to reduce its retail price while improving quality and safety. First of all, we are talking about the production, proper operation and safe disposal of household LEDs. The use of light sources with high luminous efficiency in combination with adjustable luminous flux depending on natural light, traffic intensity on highways and other parameters can play a significant role in reducing utility power consumption.

There is also a great potential for energy saving in the field of construction and heating. As energy-saving measures in the housing stock can be recommended simple solutions-insulation of walls, coatings, ceilings, basements, window and doorways. Significant heat savings are achieved through the modernization of heating and hot water systems through the installation of water temperature control devices.

Efficient energy consumption is the fastest, cheapest and cleanest way to extend the use of energy resources. Energy saving is, in fact, the only tool that allows in a short time to reduce energy consumption and harmful emissions without reducing the growth rate of the national economy. It is estimated that one monetary unit invested in energy conservation corresponds to the efficiency of three to five units invested in the extraction of resources and energy production, thus, energy saving is the most effective alternative energy source to date.

How developed and developing countries can slow global warming

One of the recommendations – a global price on emissions – could transform the uncertain political ambitions in real investment incentives
In a new study, the Boston Consulting Group (BCG) analyzes how countries responsible for 60% of greenhouse gases emitted into the atmosphere can minimize the effects of climate change. For each of them (Germany, China, USA, India, Brazil, Russia and South Africa) BCG considered three economic scenarios: taking into account the current policy, using proven technologies, according to the Paris agreement goal.

To leave unchanged
Adhering to the current policy in relation to climate change, none of the countries will not be able to achieve individual goals that were established to hold the global temperature increase below 2°C by 2100 (objective of the Paris agreement). Even with improved efficiency, the spread of electric transport and the gradual replacement of carbon fuels, most developed countries are on track to reduce emissions.

Developed economies such as the US and Germany have already managed to bridge the link between economic growth and increased emissions, but there are some key differences between Europe and America. For example, while Europe’s population (despite permanent immigration) is likely to decline, the us population is projected to increase by one fifth by 2050. This is about 67 million people, which is equivalent to the population of the UK. In the US, due to the large territory and love for large cars, transport is a more significant source of emissions. Although Europe has to import most of the energy, it is not profitable for the US to replace carbon fuels because of its high natural resources. Therefore, if Germany reduces pollutant emissions by 45% under current policies by 2050, us emissions will be reduced by only 11 %.

Developing countries, to succeed in the economy, continue to use low-cost and carbon-intensive technologies, increasing emissions. China’s economic growth is expected to exceed 300 % by 2050, but emissions will only increase by 6% as population declines, efficiency increases, and the country burns less coal. At the same time, in India, where by the same time the economy will grow by more than 700%, the population will increase by 26%, and emissions – twice. In these countries and in South-East Asia, coal remains the main source of energy.

In Brazil, economic recovery and population growth will increase emissions in all sectors. The main challenge for the country is that more than 40% of emissions come from agriculture, whose products are exported.

Among the major developing countries, South Africa alone will reduce emissions, despite economic growth and population growth of more than 40% by 2050. As the old production facilities are replaced, the percentage of inefficient use of coal will decrease. But overall, the African continent is moving towards increased emissions.

Trust technology
In BCG’s view, all seven countries can close the 65-90% gap between current emissions and the Paris agreement target using proven and accepted technologies.

Thus, by 2050, countries could provide at least 80% of their capacity with low-carbon technologies such as wind, solar, hydro, nuclear and biomass. The exact combination depends on the specific country conditions, but the use of coal must necessarily be reduced. This can be provided by both regulatory measures and economic opportunities. As the cost of RES (renewable energy sources) continues to fall, and their share in electricity production increases, coal will become a reserve source of energy.

Cost-effective reduction of transport emissions requires a broad transition to an electric motor. Research shows that about half of all new automotive powertrains will be partially or fully electric by 2030. All new cars and light trucks can become electric in the USA, China and Germany by 2050. Depending on the dynamics of fleet renewal, this would lead to a total share of electronic mobility of 50-75 %.

In the construction sector, direct emissions can be significantly reduced by improving the efficiency of buildings and appliances and by increasing the use of heat pumps instead of gas heating and the use of liquid fuels in rural areas. For countries using district heating systems (China, Germany and Russia), it will be easier to abandon fossil fuels in cities. In warm countries (India and Brazil) may increase the role of solar heat to heat water. Improving construction efficiency will help slow down the increase in demand for electricity for air cooling.

In agriculture, soil nitrification, efficient use of manure (for example, for biogas production), waste and a ban on their disposal will be effective. To combat the increase in emissions from deforestation, States must adopt more sustainable land-use policies.

The cost of these steps is about $ 28 trillion to 2050. The US, China, Brazil, Germany (and most other OECD members) will have to invest about 1% of GDP. India, Russia and South Africa – almost 2 times more. However, good planning and management, as well as narrowly focused climate change management, can have a positive impact on GDP, because investment creates economic incentives.

Make maximum effort
The most unrealistic scenario is full compliance with the objectives of the Paris Treaty. To do this, seven countries will have to increase investment by another 60 % (up to $45 trillion by 2050). Globally, it is $ 75 trillion, or 2-6% of the annual GDP of the States. Although most countries will need to add less than 1% of their GDP, South Africa (plus 1.6 %) and Russia (3.9%) will be severely affected.

In the resolute fight against warming, it will be difficult for States to act without a broad international consensus at least on the G20. But, according to BCG, ambitious efforts will not harm economic growth. On the contrary, such measures will prepare fossil-fuel economies for the inevitable transition to renewable energy.

Some countries will need investment assistance. One of the recommendations – a global price on emissions – could transform the uncertain political ambitions in real investment incentives. Another tool, emissions trading, has the potential to improve economic efficiency by allowing developed countries with high pollution abatement costs to pay for cheaper measures in less developed countries. However, countries with low individual indicators to combat warming will not see an incentive for long-term trade and burden-sharing.

The idea of “green development” as one of the main priorities of the Development Strategy of Kazakhstan until 2050

The article deals with the factors that combine to form the Third industrial revolution. It is concluded that the Third industrial revolution can be a real opportunity for Kazakhstan to build a new type of economy — “green economy”. The goals, objectives and basic principles of the transition to a “green economy” are described, special attention is paid to the measures for the transition to it by sectors. The stages of realization of the Concept on transition of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the “green way” of development are covered. It also describes the tools the implementation of specific tasks of the Concept on sectors of the economy.

The third industrial revolution as an opportunity for Kazakhstan to build a ” green economy»

The message of the President of RK N..Nazarbayev “Strategy “Kazakhstan-2050″: new political course of the established state” sounded the following: “Humanity is on the threshold of the Third industrial revolution which changes the very notion of production. Technological discoveries are fundamentally changing the structure and needs of world markets. We live in a completely different technological reality than before ” [1; 7].

The third industrial revolution — Third Industrial Revolution) is a concept, an innovative idea of human development, the author of which is the American scientist Jeremy Rifkin (Jeremy Rifkin). The third industrial revolution is formed by a combination of the following factors [2]:

  • transition to renewable energy sources (RES);
  • transformation of existing and new buildings (both industrial and residential) into mini-plants for the production of energy (by equipping them with solar panels, mini-wind turbines, heat pumps);
  • development and implementation of energy and resource saving technologies (both industrial and “home”) – full utilization of residual flows and losses of electricity, steam, water, any heat, industrial and household waste, etc.;
  • transfer of all automobile (automobile and cargo) and all public transport on electric traction on the basis of hydrogen energy, and also development of new economic types of cargo transport, such as airships, underground pneumatic transport, etc. ;
  • the transition from industrial to local and even “home” production of most household goods through the development of 3D-printer technology;
  • transition from metallurgy to composite materials (especially nanomaterials) based on carbon, as well as replacement of metallurgy by 3D printing technology based on selective laser melting (SLM-Selective Laser Melting);
  • rejection of animal husbandry, the transition to the production of “artificial meat” from animal cells using 3D bioprinters;
  • transfer of part of agriculture in the city on the basis of technology “vertical farms” (Vertical Farm).

The third industrial revolution can be a real opportunity for Kazakhstan to build a new type of economy — “green economy”.

The modern literature [3; 144-147] provides a number of definitions of the concepts of “green growth”, “green economy”, “green jobs”, “green economy”.

  1. According to the definition of the United Nations environment Programme (UNEP), “green economy” is an economy that enhances human well — being and ensures social justice while significantly reducing environmental risks. In its simplest sense, the green economy is a low-carbon economy that uses resources efficiently and serves the interests of society as a whole.
  2. “Green growth “is characterized by the growing use of” green technologies “in all sectors of the economy, the increase in” green jobs”, the production and use of environmentally friendly goods and services. It aims to support economic development while ensuring the sustainable use of natural capital, minimizing environmental pollution and other forms of negative environmental impacts.
  3. The “green sector” of the economy includes areas where activities are aimed at the transformation of resources without harming, as far as possible, the environment and climate — “green energy”, transport, processing and disposal of garbage, etc.
  4. According to the definition of UNEP “green jobs” – is work in agriculture, manufacturing, R & d, management, service delivery, which primarily contributes to the protection and restoration of the quality of the environment.

Requirements for ” green jobs “(as defined by the ILO):” green jobs ” are defined as jobs in enterprises and organizations that reduce environmental impacts by increasing resource recovery, recycling and waste management, and by conserving or restoring ecosystems and biodiversity.

Green jobs must meet the criteria for decent work, i.e., they must be high-quality jobs that guarantee good wages, safe working conditions, stable employment, acceptable prospects for upgrading skills and career development, and respect for the rights of employees.

The main prerequisites for the transition of Kazakhstan to a ” green economy»

After the Rio+20 Summit, held in 2012 in Brazil, the development of “green strategies” has become one of the priorities of economic policy of both developed and developing countries. Among the post-Soviet countries, the Republic of Kazakhstan was one of the first to take the path of “green development”.

May 30, 2013 by the decree of the President of RK N..Nazarbayev approved the “Concept of transition of Kazakhstan to green economy”. It basically raises the issues of effective use of natural resources and improving the welfare of citizens of Kazakhstan through the diversification of the economy and the creation of new jobs, as well as improving the living conditions of citizens, strengthening the health of the nation and increasing the life expectancy of the population by improving the environment, ensuring sustainable development through the modernization of the economy and balanced regional development. Among the prerequisites for the transition to a” green economy ” is the inefficient use of resources in all major sectors, leading to huge economic losses (from low land productivity) — in the amount of 1.5-4 billion dollars a year. In addition, the imperfection of the system of tariff and energy pricing does not stimulate technological improvement of the industry, and as a result of the deterioration of natural resources, a deficit of 13-14 billion cubic meters of sustainable water resources for the needs of the economy by 2030 is projected. Other reasons for the transition to a “green economy” were significant territorial heterogeneity in economic indicators, living standards and the state of the environment. And here, the introduction of new industries and “green clusters” will reduce inequality in the development of regions and use their potential in renewable energy, agriculture, water management, waste management and other sectors. In addition, the world community expects Kazakhstan to successfully implement significant projects: EXPO-2017 called “energy of the future” and the partnership Program “Green bridge” to promote sustainable development in Central Asia and other regions of the world [4].

The adoption of the Concept demonstrated to the world community Kazakhstan’s strict compliance with international obligations and readiness to carry out structural reforms in the national economy.

Goals, objectives and basic principles of the transition to a green economy»

According to the Concept and in accordance with the Strategy “Kazakhstan-2050” transition to a “green economy” will allow Kazakhstan to achieve the goal of becoming one of the 30 most developed countries in the world.

According to calculations, by 2050, the transformations in the framework of the “green economy” will further increase GDP by 3 percent, create over 500 thousand new jobs, create new industries and services, provide universally high standards in the quality of life for the population.

In General, the amount of investment required for the transition to a “green economy” will be about 1% of GDP annually, which is equivalent to 3-4 billion US dollars a year.

The goals for most long-term sectoral and resource indicators in Kazakhstan up to 2050 are quite high. In this regard, most of them were taken into account in the development of the Concept with the completion of the missing indicators in the context of closer time horizons (table. 1).

The main priorities for the transition to a “green economy” facing Kazakhstan are [5; 2]:

  • improving the efficiency of resource use (water, land, biological, etc.) and management;
  • modernization of existing and construction of new infrastructure;
  • improving the well-being of the population and the quality of the environment through cost-effective ways to reduce pressure on the environment;
  • improving national security, including one.

In accordance with the Concept, all sectoral and regional Programs should be analyzed for compliance with the principles of “green economy”, which provide for:

а) increasing resource productivity: resource productivity (defined as GDP per unit of water, land, energy resources, unit of greenhouse gas emissions, etc.) should become the Central economic indicator since this parameter evaluates the country’s ability to create value by minimizing the load on the environment;

б) responsibility for the use of resources: it is necessary to increase responsibility at all levels of government, business and the public for monitoring and controlling sustainable consumption of resources and the environment;

в)  modernization of the economy with the use of the most effective technologies: Kazakhstan in the next 20 years will increase GDP, industrial production and the number of infrastructure facilities several times. These transformations open up the possibility of applying completely new solutions in the economy: it can be new technologies, integrated systems with a closed production cycle or innovative approaches to the production of electricity in the framework of the Third industrial revolution;

г) ensuring the investment attractiveness of measures for the effective use of resources: it is necessary to ensure fair tariff and pricing in the resource markets in order to reduce subsidies to their consuming industries;

д)  implementation of cost-effective measures in the first place: priority will be given to those initiatives that allow not only to improve the environmental situation, but also to obtain economic benefits;

е) education and formation of environmental culture in business and among the population: it is necessary to improve existing and develop new educational programs on the rational use of resources and environmental protection in the education and training system.

Measures for the transition to a green economy by sector

The concept includes coordinated policies in all sectors related to the use of resources. According to the Concept, measures for the transition to a “green economy” should be implemented in the following main areas.

Sustainable use of water resources

It is known that water resources of Kazakhstan is a unique and vulnerable system, which is exposed to external risks much more than in other countries.

First, drainage basins and high levels of evaporation from the surface of lakes lead to significant water consumption for their maintenance (30 billion m3 is needed to stabilize lake ecosystems).

Second, dependence on transboundary rivers from China, Russia, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan, which account for 44% of surface water inflow, is rapidly declining due to the acceleration of economic and social development of neighboring countries.

Third, Kazakhstan’s water resources are exposed to global warming. The temporary increase in glacier melting will affect future water resources (rivers in the South are most at risk).

In this regard, the Concept sets the task of transition to efficient and careful use of water resources, based on the target aimed at closing the water deficit at the level of each basin by 2030.and if radical measures are not taken and development goes along the current trajectory, as a result of the rapidly growing demand for water and reduction of its sustainable reserves by 2030, a water deficit of 14 billion cubic meters is expected, by 2050 the deficit will be 20 billion cubic meters (70% of the water demand) [4].

In addition, in the absence of pre-emptive actions proposed in the Concept, the shortage of water in the country can lead to:

  • reduction of environmental water supplies, with the subsequent degradation of lake and river ecosystems and fishing, especially on lake Balkhash, in the Delta of the Ili river, the marsh systems of Central Kazakhstan, the Northern Aral, etc.;
  • regulation of water consumption for economic purposes, especially in agriculture, as well as in the hydropower industry, in industry; possible interruptions in the water supply of settlements;
  • increase of water supply costs due to the need to put into operation new sources of water supply (secondary use, desalination plants, main pipelines) and transfer of water resources between the basins.

Since the threat of water scarcity and inefficient management of water resources in the future may become a major obstacle to sustainable economic growth and social development of Kazakhstan, among the radical measures proposed to solve the problems of water security are the introduction of water — saving irrigation technologies, reducing losses in irrigation and transportation systems, increasing water saving in industry, eliminating leaks and losses in homes and highways, reducing pollution and cleaning water basins. There is also a need for a more effective dialogue with neighbouring countries on the sharing of transboundary rivers, based on the principles of equity and economic attractiveness.

The development of a sustainable and highly productive agriculture

In recent years, the agricultural sector of Kazakhstan has faced a number of serious problems. One of the most notable is limited access to funding. According to estimates of the European Bank for reconstruction and development and the world Bank in Kazakhstan, 56% of firms, including agricultural enterprises, state limited access to sources of financing for their development. More than 80 % of agricultural equipment is obsolete, and it is difficult to attract investment to purchase modern equipment due to the lack of solutions for longer-term financing and the current large share of bad debts.

Limited access to funding also reduces the use of fertilizers and high-quality seeds.

To solve the problems faced by the agricultural sector, the government of Kazakhstan has developed a Program for the development of agriculture in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2013-2020 “Agribusiness 2020”, in order to improve the competitiveness of the agricultural sector. At the same time, the Concept complements the industry Program “Agribusiness-2020” with an indicator of increasing grain yield up to 14 t / ha in 2020 and up to 20 t / ha-in 2030. Such goals are quite achievable if domestic farmers are provided with affordable financing tools to purchase the necessary agricultural machinery, high-quality fertilizers and increase crop rotation in order to reduce land degradation [4].

It is also proposed to use foreign experience through the involvement of foreign investors to create model farms on the basis of long-term contractual relations between farms and buyers of agricultural products (contract farming). This will ensure the involvement of advanced technologies in the industry and expand markets for Kazakh products.

Energy conservation & energy efficiency

As the forecasts [6] show, the world reserves of traditional energy sources may end in the next 100 years. Oil sources can be exhausted in 40-50 years, gas-in 5080 years, uranium-in 80-100 years. Coal reserves will last for a longer period, but if you constantly use this type of fuel, there will be a danger of environmental disaster. And in Kazakhstan, as experts note, the largest oil and gas fields will reach the peak of production between 2030 and 2040.the Period is relatively short. And if we take into account that in the country about 50.4% of energy is produced from coal, 20.5 % — from gas, 21.6 % — from oil, it becomes clear that the situation must be changed. Therefore, it is now understood that it is very important to improve the energy efficiency of the economy.

The study of the potential of energy saving has revealed that the country’s most energy-intensive industry. This is about 70% of electricity consumption and about 37% of energy resources. And the lion’s share of electricity consumption is accounted for by the thirty largest enterprises in the country, while in the European Union the share of electricity consumption by the industrial sector is on average 24 %. There are many reasons. One of them is that a large number of industrial and energy enterprises of Kazakhstan still use outdated technologies and worn-out equipment. Meanwhile, calculations show that by increasing energy efficiency, it is possible to reduce energy consumption in the industrial sector to 30% and reduce the share of carbon dioxide emissions by the same percentage.

The problem of energy saving and energy efficiency is acute in the municipal sector. According to the akimats, 32 % of the housing stock require certain types of repairs. Most of the buildings, which are mainly houses built in 1950-1989, do not have the characteristics that meet modern requirements, which is why they lose more than 30% of thermal energy.

In the current conditions, the task is to modernize the economy of Kazakhstan. The Law “on energy saving and energy efficiency” was adopted [7]. According to the law, the country introduced a differentiated fee for the consumed heat. This encourages residents to install heat meters in their homes. According to the law, since 2013, there is a ban on the supply of thermal electric energy, gas to new constructed facilities that are not equipped with metering devices. The law also introduced a ban on the sale and production of power-consuming devices, where the efficiency class is not indicated, and on conventional incandescent lamps. In addition, more than 170 technical standards have been adopted, including the harmonized international energy management standard ISO 50001. Several Kazakh enterprises have established production of led lighting sources, the production of energy-saving materials such as thermal insulation panels, pre-insulated pipes.

Work is also underway to create a state energy register. 2000 large consumers of energy resources-plants and factories, large enterprises — must conduct a mandatory energy audit. What does it mean? First, it is an opportunity to assess the energy saving potential of these enterprises, how it is possible to upgrade equipment, technological processes, as well as how to effectively make management decisions based on energy management.

Studies [6] show that the funds invested in energy-saving technologies pay off in a period of several months to 5-7 years. With the introduction of new generating capacities, it will take 2-3 times longer. But all these measures will not produce significant results if Kazakhstan does not develop the transition to renewable energy sources (RES).

It is known that the key consequence of the crises of industrial (1970s) and post-industrial (2000s) phases of development was the change of priority energy sources. The crisis of the 1970s led to a shift from the use of oil to the use of natural gas, nuclear energy, and temporary coal (table. 2).

 

The crisis of the 2000s led to the need to shift from fuel sources to renewable energy. Hence, in the Republic, after its choice as the venue of the world specialized exhibition “EXPO” in 2017, and especially after the approval of the theme of the exhibition, the problem of transition to alternative energy sources has become particularly relevant. In his Message to the people of Kazakhstan “Kazakhstan’s way-2050: common goal, common interests, common future” President of Kazakhstan N..Nazarbayev stressed: “the preparation of the world exhibition “EXPO-2017” in Astana should be used to create center for the study and implementation of best world experience on searching and creation of future energy and “green economy”. A group of specialists under the auspices of Nazarbayev University should start this work ” [9; 5, 6].

It is expected that EXPO-2017 in Astana will host delegations from more than 100 countries and about 10 international organizations. After all, the topic of renewable energy has long been studied abroad, especially in developed countries. And at the specialized exhibition the participating countries will demonstrate their achievements in this area.At the same time, visitors will be able to see the benefits of using this type of energy. These are environmental friendliness, low cost, reduction of harmful emissions, the possibility of expanding local energy saving, as well as the development of new technologies, energy efficiency and, finally, as a concomitant factor, the creation of new jobs.

According to preliminary unofficial calculations [10], EXPO-2017 will cost Kazakhstan 2.3 billion dollars. According to experts, this price will be justified in the future, when mankind will really face the problems of ecology, depletion of natural resources and the costs of increased energy consumption.

Power industry development

Today, the power system of Kazakhstan is characterized by a high concentration of power generating capacities, the location of large power plants mainly near fuel fields, a high proportion of the combined method of electricity and heat production for industrial and municipal needs, a developed scheme of power transmission lines, where high voltage lines (VL) of 500 and 1150 kV, a single, vertically organized system of operational dispatching control, carried out by the Central dispatching control, with developed market relations.

In the future, one of the main trends in the development of the electric power industry may be the transition to intelligent power systems. The main advantages of such systems are flexibility, controllability, availability of storage (accumulating) stations, the possibility of painless integration of RES through the construction of combined power plants, for example, RES +hydroelectric storage station. According to experts [11; 9], by 2030, “Samruk — Energy” sees the need for the creation of Kazakhstan’s intellectual energy system — KIES, the purpose of which is to ensure the reliability of electricity supplies.

The resource potential of Kazakhstan predetermines the prospect of entering the country into the top ten world energy producers, including the production of natural and shale gas. The Republic has unique reserves of coal, uranium, oil and natural gas, has a large potential in hydropower, including renewable energy sources. The total volume of extracted basic fuel resources of Kazakhstan (oil, gas, coal and uranium) is about 35 billion tons of oil equivalent. The current annual production of primary energy resources reaches 400 million tons. The internal consumption of the country does not exceed 60 million t. This makes Kazakhstan energy surplus and large exporter of energy resources in different countries of the world [12; 3].

Currently, Kazakhstan is working on the possibility of supplying electricity to the Republic of Belarus in transit through the electric networks of Russia. In case of the positive practices of these supplies, we should expect the possibility of considering the export to the EU. Kazakhstan is also working on the possibility of electricity supplies to China, Afghanistan and Pakistan.

According to the balance of power of the UES of Kazakhstan for the period up to 2030, given in the decree of the Government of Kazakhstan dated June 28, 2014 № 724 “on approval of the Concept of development of the fuel and energy complex of Kazakhstan until 2030”, the excess capacity in the UES of Kazakhstan in 2016 will be 1504 MW, in 2020 — 1874 MW, in 2025 — 1448 MW [13; 4].

It became known that by 2019 Kazakhstan, Russia and Belarus plan to form a common electric power market within the framework of the Eurasian economic Union (EEU). These three countries are already discussing the draft concept and program for creating a market that will be one of the largest in the world in terms of total electricity production. Over the next four years, the members of the EEU ECO will take measures to harmonize the regulatory framework in the field of electricity, technological regulations and standards, lay the foundations for ensuring access of economic entities to the markets of another country, as well as create new, now unified regulations in the field of electricity.

Waste management system

The state of the environment in the Republic remains unsatisfactory. Air, soil and water pollution is a major factor affecting the ecosystem, including health effects. The progressive accumulation of industrial and household waste and contaminated effluents significantly increase this factor.

In the future, the restoration and development of economic sectors should be carried out with the stabilization of emissions and discharges of pollutants into the environment.

Therefore, in the development of any large-scale sectoral programs for the development of industry, urban planning and other issues must be considered environmental impact assessment.

Thus, the greening of the economy and improvement of the environmental management system should be carried out.

The most tangible results of human economic activity during the last century are the generation of waste and their pollution of the ecotope. These wastes by origin are divided into industrial (Tpro) and domestic (MSW).

The surface of the Earth is experiencing the most significant anthropogenic load. In this regard, the Concept lays the Foundation for the creation of a new waste processing sector for Kazakhstan. The document provides for the full coverage of settlements by 2030 with the export of solid domestic waste, ensuring the sanitary storage of 95% of waste.

It should be noted that to date, 97% of waste is exported to landfills that do not meet sanitary requirements. By 2050, this situation should be radically changed. In the future, it is expected to build a non-waste, so-called circular economy.

The reduction of air pollution

Large-scale emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere lead to an increase in its temperature, deterioration of the earth’s ecological condition. Based on the inventory of greenhouse gas emissions obtained under the Kyoto Protocol, it was found that about 20 billion tons of CO2, about 300 million tons of CO, 50 million tons of NO, 150 million tons of SO2, 4-5 million tons of H2S and a large number of other harmful gases are emitted annually in the world [14].

In this regard, mankind is faced with the problem of reducing the rate of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. Possible ways to reduce them can be the introduction of energy-saving technologies, the transition to alternative fuels, as well as high-performance “green technologies” [15; 62].

The basic criteria of modern environmentally friendly “green technologies” are [16]:

  • prevention of emissions of toxic substances and by-products;
  • the raw materials used in production should be included as much as possible in the composition of the target products;
  • products used and produced in production should not be toxic to biological objects;
  • the use of excipients, toxic solvents should be minimized;
  • energy costs should be optimized in terms of economy and environmental impact;
  • source raw material for obtaining the products should be renewable;
  • auxiliary technological stages should be excluded, if possible;
  • produced products should be harmless, easy to break down and not accumulate in the environment;
  • to prevent the formation of harmful substances production analytical control should be carried out in real time;
  • technological processes should exclude the possibility of unforeseen accidents.

It should be noted that Kazakhstan is the largest producer of anthropogenic greenhouse gas in Central Asia and the third in the CIS, carrying out annual emissions of 180-200 tons of CO2 equivalent. Excess greenhouse gas emissions are known to lead to climate change, which can increase desertification and land degradation, reduce agricultural productivity and increase water scarcity. There are data: 3 % of the ozone layer over the territory of Kazakhstan has already been destroyed [17; 20].

With this in mind, in December 2012 Kazakhstan entered The Annex “B” of the Kyoto Protocol, concerning the issues of combating climate change through the introduction of a small-carbon economy and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The fact is that unlike many countries, Kazakhstan has an advantage — its own energy resources, using which it is possible to less painfully reform the energy, agriculture, construction, transport, utilities, moving along the “green bridge”.

However, this process cannot be delayed. Thus, energy is still slowly being gasified in the Republic, while the transfer to the gas of road transport and generation of electricity from gas turbines is a direct implementation of the principles of the Kyoto Protocol to reduce harmful emissions through the use of more efficient fuel.

Such transit technology is widely introduced in Europe, where today the network of gas stations is actively expanding. And it benefits.

Increasingly, the most promising gas fuel is not traditional liquid propane, but compressed natural gas, which has a greater energy value and gives a smaller amount of carbon dioxide emissions. Moreover, for example, in Germany it is the most profitable from the point of view of taxation. If one kilowatt-hour of energy or diesel is taxed at 4.7 and 7.3 eurocents, respectively, then a similar amount of energy extracted from compressed natural gas costs only 1.5 cents of taxes [18; 4].

According to international experts, a large role in the transition to a “green economy” belongs to the state, which should set the following tasks [19; 4]:

  • introduction of environmental taxes;
  • tightening environmental requirements and reducing government subsidies for the brown industry;
  • significant public investment in green industry;
  • transfer and implementation of the latest “green” technologies.

The introduction of environmental taxes is a transition from taxes “on labor” and “on business” to taxes for the consumption of resources. The most developed in the world is the introduction of taxes on electricity (without renewable sources), on motor fuel, on the intake of water from natural sources, on the future generation of waste. Instead, taxes on low wages, corporate tax, social taxes, pension contributions are reduced.

The transfer of” green “technologies should be facilitated by the initiative of Kazakhstan” Green bridge”, which the Head of state made at the Third Astana economic forum.

Stages of implementation of the Concept of transition to a “green economy” and tools for the implementation of its specific tasks by sectors of the economy

The concept of Kazakhstan’s transition to a “green economy” will be implemented in three stages [5; 2]:

2013-2020 – during this period, the main priority of the state will be to optimize the use of resources and increase the efficiency of environmental activities, as well as the creation of “green” infrastructure;

2020-2030 – the transformation of the national economy focused on the careful use of water, promotion and stimulation of the development and widespread introduction of renewable energy technologies, as well as the construction of facilities based on high standards of energy efficiency will begin on the basis of the formed “green” infrastructure;

2030-2050 – the transition of the national economy to the principles of the so-called “Third industrial revolution”, requiring the use of natural resources, provided they are renewable and sustainable.

The implementation of the transition to a” green economy “will be regulated by the legislative acts of the Republic of Kazakhstan on the transition to a”green economy”.

The tools for the implementation of specific tasks of the Concept by sectors of the economy are the existing program documents, taking into account changes and additions in the implementation of the main directions of the Concept, such as The program for the development of the agro-industrial complex in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2013-2020. “Agribusiness-2020”, the State program on forced industrial and innovative development of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2010-2014 and 2015-2019, the strategy “Kazakhstan-2050”, the State program of education development of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020, the program of development of territories, strategic plans of state bodies, a number of sectoral programs that will be adjusted and which will give new emphasis on issues such as improving air quality, waste management of production and consumption, combating desertification and land degradation, increase of soil fertility, development of fisheries, aquaculture and reproduction of fish resources.

List literaturovedenie environmental taxes is the transition from the “tax on labor” and “business” taxes on the consumption of resources. The most developed in the world is the introduction of taxes on electricity (without renewable sources), on motor fuel, on the intake of water from natural sources, on the future generation of waste. Instead, taxes on low wages, corporate tax, social taxes, pension contributions are reduced.

The transfer of” green “technologies should be facilitated by the initiative of Kazakhstan” Green bridge”, which the Head of state made at the Third Astana economic forum.

Stages of implementation of the Concept of transition to a “green economy” and tools for the implementation of its specific tasks by sectors of the economy

The concept of Kazakhstan’s transition to a “green economy” will be implemented in three stages [5; 2]:

2013-2020 – during this period, the main priority of the state will be to optimize the use of resources and increase the efficiency of environmental activities, as well as the creation of “green” infrastructure;

2020-2030 – the transformation of the national economy focused on the careful use of water, promotion and stimulation of the development and widespread introduction of renewable energy technologies, as well as the construction of facilities based on high standards of energy efficiency will begin on the basis of the formed “green” infrastructure;

2030-2050 – the transition of the national economy to the principles of the so-called “Third industrial revolution”, requiring the use of natural resources, provided they are renewable and sustainable.

The implementation of the transition to a” green economy “will be regulated by the legislative acts of the Republic of Kazakhstan on the transition to a”green economy”.

The tools for the implementation of specific tasks of the Concept by sectors of the economy are the existing program documents, taking into account changes and additions in the implementation of the main directions of the Concept, such as The program for the development of the agro-industrial complex in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2013-2020. “Agribusiness-2020”, the State program on forced industrial and innovative development of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2010-2014 and 2015-2019, the strategy “Kazakhstan-2050”, the State program of education development of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020, the program of development of territories, strategic plans of state bodies, a number of sectoral programs that will be adjusted and which will give new emphasis on issues such as improving air quality, waste management of production and consumption, combating desertification and land degradation, increase of soil fertility, development of fisheries, aquaculture and reproduction of fish resources.

List of references

  1. The message of the President of Kazakhstan — Leader of nation N..Nazarbayev to people of Kazakhstan “Strategy “Kazakhstan — 2050″: new political course of the established state” // Idea. – 2013. – № 1. — Pp. 2-23.
  2. Rijkin J. Third Industrial Revolution // http: // thethirdin — dustrialrevolution. com.
  3. Kazakhstan’s way-2050. kN. 1. Kazakhstan’s economy in the XXI century: Call. the monograph / Under the General ed. by B. K. Sultanov. — Almaty: KISR under the President of Kazakhstan, 2014. – 244 p.
  4. Tuleshev “Green” modernization // Kazakhstanskaya Pravda. – 2013. — June 7. – P. 8.
  5. Comment to the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan “on the Concept of transition of the Republic of Kazakhstan to “green economy” // Kazakhstanskaya Pravda. – 2013. — June 1. — C. 2.
  6. Tournament. Investments in” green ” technologies // Kazakhstanskaya Pravda. – 2013. – July 12. – P. 9.
  7. Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan” on energy saving and energy efficiency ” / / Kazakhstanskaya Pravda. – 2012. — 26 Jan. – P. 9.
  8. Markelov, K. A., Zvolinsky V. P., S. O. Sexual Interaction energy and the economy in conditions of globalization // Caspian region: politics, economy, culture. – 2014. – № 3 (40). — Pp. 145-155.
  9. The message of the Head of the state N..Nazarbayev to people of Kazakhstan “Kazakhstan’s way-2050: common goal, common interests, common future” Idea. – 2014. – № 2. – P. 2-9.
  10. Sergeev V. energy Saving and energy efficiency improvement // Kazakhstanskaya Pravda. – 2013. — July 26. – P. 6.
  11. Konyrova K. Traditions and innovations // Kazakhstanskaya Pravda. – 2013. – November 15. – P. 9.
  12. Nurgaliyev. Transit corridors, energy security // the Kazakhstan truth. – 2014. – November 28. — C. 3.
  13. Li V. in the context of integration of industry-wide problematic issues of power engineers can be solved at a lower cost // Panorama. – №43. – 2014. – November 7. — C. 4.
  14. Pollution of the biosphere / / nttr: / / ru / node / 45.
  15. Shapovalov Yu. a. Environmentally friendly production based on supercritical carbon dioxide // Industry of Kazakhstan. – 2013. – № 5 (80). – P. 62-63.
  16. Kustov L. M., Beletskaya I. P. “Green Chemistry” – new thinking // Journal ROS. Chem. Oh, im. D. I. Mendeleev. – 2004. — T. HUSH. – № 6. – P. 3-12.
  17. Alinov M. sh. Transformation to” green energy”: prospects of Kazakhstan // Alpari. – 2011. – №2-3. —Pp. 20-22.
  18. Milyutin A. to use resources Effectively / / Kazakhstanskaya Pravda. – 2013. – 6 APR. — C. 4.
  19. Samakova. Kyoto Protocol is a process / / Kazakhstanskaya Pravda. – 2013. – 6 APR. — C. 4.

REGIONAL POLICY IN THE FIELD OF ENERGY SAVING AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY

According to the Order of the Minister of investment and development of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated December 12, 2014 № 264 “on approval of the mechanism of evaluation of the activities of local Executive bodies on energy saving and energy efficiency” the Ministry on an annual basis assesses the activities of m & e on energy saving and energy efficiency.

The evaluation is based on the following criteria:

1) implementation within its competence of the state policy in the field of energy saving and energy efficiency and measures for energy saving and energy efficiency included in the program of development of the relevant territory;

2) monitoring of compliance with energy consumption standards by state institutions within the limits of its competence;

3) organization of energy audit of state institutions;

4) organization of thermal modernization of public institutions;

5) purchase and installation of energy metering devices for public institutions;

6) purchase and installation of automatic heat management systems for public institutions;

7) ensuring the modernization of Park and street lighting, taking into account the use of energy-saving lamps;

8) organization of recycling of mercury-containing energy-saving lamps used by the population.

However, according to the assessment carried out in 2017, work on energy saving in the regions is carried out at a low level. Only

8 regions at the end of 2016 showed the average result (Pavlodar, Mangistau, Akmola, Kostanay, Kyzylorda regions, WKO, East Kazakhstan region and South Kazakhstan region), the other regions have a “low” rating.

On average, since the entry into force of the Law, the share of completed energy audits in the regions and cities of Astana and Almaty does not exceed 50%, and only in Akmola region energy audits were conducted by 70% of the subjects of SER, obliged to conduct energy audits, in the North Kazakhstan region 62% and in Pavlodar region 66%, and in all other regions this figure does not exceed 50 %.

However, in 2017 in 3 regions (Almaty. Zhambyl and Astana) countries have been developed, and 13 regions have approved Comprehensive plans for energy conservation and energy efficiency (Akmola, Aktobe, Atyrau, East Kazakhstan, West Kazakhstan, Karaganda, Kostanay, Kyzylorda, Mangystau, Pavlodar, North Kazakhstan,

South Kazakhstan, Almaty).

Evaluation of the activities of local Executive bodies on energy saving and energy efficiency in 2016Evaluation of the activities of local Executive bodies on energy saving and energy efficiency in 2016

THE NAME OF THE REGION

THE OUTCOME OF THE ASSESSMENT/SCORES

1

Pavlodar region

High/35

2

Mangistau region

Medium/34

3

East Kazakhstan region

Medium/30

4

Akmola region

Medium/25

4

Kostanai region

Medium/25

4

West Kazakhstan region

Medium/25

4

Kyzylorda region

Medium /25

4

South-Kazakhstan region

Medium /25

5

Aktobe region

Low/23

6

Almaty region

Low/22

7

Karaganda region

Low/21

7

Zhambyl region

Low/21

8

Atyrau region

Low/17

9

Astana

Low/17

10

Almaty city

No information provided

10

North-Kazakhstan region

No information provided

Reference on the comprehensive energy saving plan for 2015-2020

PAA

Approved

Developed

Note

Akmolinsk

+

10 November 2016

Aktobe

+

17 August 2016

Almaty

+

For the consideration of the Maslikhat

Atyrau

+

July 4, 2016

East Kazakhstan

+

9 December 2015

Zhambyl

+

For the consideration of the Maslikhat

West Kazakhstan

+

12 June 2015

Karaganda

+

March 27, 2014

Kostanay

+

23 December 2014

The Department of energy saving*

Kyzylorda

+

10 February 2016

Mangystau

+

11 July 2016

Pavlodar

+

26 February 2015

The Department of energy saving*

North Kazakhstan

+

19 April 2016

South-Kazakhstan

+

March 19, 2015

Almaty city

+

18 March 2015

city of Astana

+

On the approval of the Governor’s office

Prospects for the transition of the economy to the “Green economy” model in Kazakhstan

Economic growth and development are fundamental processes of macroeconomic dynamics. Economic science defines a number of models that describe the dependence of these processes on certain external or internal factors (with regard to economic growth) or identify processes depending on the direction and strategy of implementation (which corresponds to the described types of economic development). Given the characteristics of individual societies, these models are somehow reflected in national models of economic systems. A successful strategy involves a combination of public (post-industrial trends in the evolution of the modern global system), private (patterns of transitive transformations) and individual (national specifics of socio-economic changes in the transformation process). It should be noted that the historical conditionality of development, progress, social evolution finds its practical embodiment not in each individual economic system, but only acts as a General trend, as a vector of movement of world civilization. The implementation of these areas of the innovation scenario in Kazakhstan largely depends on solving the problems of innovative development in the regions of the country.

However, the spatial development of Kazakhstan is characterized by different starting level of its separate territories, differences in the structure and specialization of farms, ambiguity of severity and depth of crisis processes in the years of market reforms, rates and forms of their implementation. All these features have put the regions of our country in unequal conditions, which contributed to the deepening of their differentiation.

There is a need for serious changes in regional policy, corresponding to the tasks of the transition from the model of “raw” development to industrial-innovative. They should consist in the reorientation of the economy of the territories for modernization, the most complete use of the accumulated potential, the structural rejuvenation of the entire economy of the region.

Even now, the main content of the state regional policy is to soften interregional contrasts, to pull backward regions to the average level. This requires increased attention to assessing the potential of innovative development of the regional economy

According to the UNEP report, the green development scenario provides more sustainable economic growth on a new innovative basis, as it facilitates the transition to a smart, intelligent economy by finding ways to effectively use and preserve natural capital (especially non-renewable natural resources), develop human capital through significant investment in science and education, reduce risks from global threats such as climate change, loss of ecosystem services and water scarcity.

The concept of “green economy” should lay the Foundation for systemic changes in order to move to the economic system of the new formation

As part of the transition to a” green ” economy, it is expected:

to increase the efficiency of resources; to improve the infrastructure of Kazakhstan; to improve the welfare of the population;

Construction of the “Green economy” model is planned in three stages:

the first stage-2013-2020-optimizing the use of resources and improving the efficiency of environmental activities, as well as the creation of “green” infrastructure;

the second stage-2020-2030-rational use of natural resources, introduction of renewable energy on the basis of high technologies;

the third stage-2030-2050 – the transition of the national economy to the principles of the” third industrial revolution”, which is based on the use of natural resources in case of their renewable.

The main priorities for the transition to a “green economy” facing the country are:

  • improving the efficiency of resource use (water, land, biological, etc.) and management;
  • modernization of existing and construction of new infrastructure;
  • improving the well-being of the population and the quality of the environment through cost-effective ways to reduce pressure on the environment;
  • improving national security, including water security. The transition to a “green economy” is based on the following basic principles:
  • improving resource productivity: resource productivity (which is defined as GDP per unit of water, land, energy, greenhouse gas emissions, etc.) should be a Central economic indicator, as this parameter assesses the ability of our country to create value while minimizing the burden on the environment;
  • responsibility for the use of resources: it is necessary to increase responsibility at all levels of government, business and the public for monitoring and controlling sustainable consumption of resources and the environment;
  • modernization of the economy with the use of the most effective technologies: Kazakhstan in the next 20 years will increase GDP, industrial production and the number of infrastructure facilities several times. These transformations open up the possibility of applying completely new solutions in the economy: it can be new technologies, integrated systems with a closed production cycle or innovative approaches to the production of electricity in the framework of the ” third industrial revolution»;
  • ensuring the investment attractiveness of measures for the effective use of resources: it is necessary to ensure fair tariff and pricing in the resource markets in order to reduce subsidies to their consuming industries;
  • implementation of cost-effective measures in the first place: priority will be given to those initiatives that allow not only to improve the environmental situation, but also to obtain economic benefits;
  • education and formation of environmental culture in business and among the population: it is necessary to improve existing and develop new educational programs on the rational use of resources and environmental protection in the education and training system.

The concept of transition of the Republic of Kazakhstan to” green economy “is implemented in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Strategy – 2050, “Strategy” Kazakhstan-2030: Prosperity, security and improvement of welfare of all Kazakhstanis ” and the Strategic development plan of the Republic of Kazakhstan until 2020.

The economic development of Kazakhstan is concentrated around the cities and the main extractive industries. The concept will reduce the regional imbalance.

First, the introduction of modern methods of agriculture and the use of green technologies will significantly increase the productivity of the agricultural sector, on which the economy of a number of regions largely depends.

Second, the provision of energy to remote areas from renewable sources, while ensuring low electricity prices, will create new industries, such as greenhouses and distant-water livestock, and increase the competitiveness of regions.

Third, as water and land conservation activities become more effective, activities such as fish and livestock production will receive new incentives for development in the regions.

The transition to a” green ” economy is becoming increasingly popular and is of great interest. “Green” economy primarily contributes to economic progress and will provide:

  • growth of gross domestic product; increase of the country’s income;
  • creating jobs for the population, while reducing the unemployment rate in the country.

At the same time, the transition to a “green” economy reduces the risks of global threats such as climate change, depletion of minerals and water scarcity.

As part of the green economy development program, Kazakhstan plans to invest in 10 key sectors of the economy:

  • agriculture;
  • housing and communal services; energy;
  • fishing; forestry; industry; tourism; transport;
  • waste management and recycling; water resources management.

Kazakhstan’s transition to a green economy in the initial stages will require certain investments and increase the investment burden. According to UNEP estimates, the transition to a green economy will cost 2% of global investment GDP per year [2].

There will also be an increase in tariffs for energy and water. This growth can be offset by sound public policies and innovative financing mechanisms. There may be a release of labour in some sectors of the economy, such as coal, rice and cotton. The emergence of new jobs in green sectors and the creation of conditions for retraining compensate for this problem. Employment growth in the brown economy is constrained by limited natural resources.

In the long term, the transition to a green economy will maintain economic growth and make Kazakhstan’s economy more sustainable (figure 1).

The goals for most long-term sectoral and resource indicators in Kazakhstan up to 2050 are quite high.

The growth rate of the green economy in 5-10 years will be higher than the forecasts for brown scenarios, but it will not be inherent in many of the risks and systemic shortcomings of the latter.

Literature:

  1. Piskulova N. Global problems. Environmental policy as a factor of international competitiveness of States / / World economy and international relations. – 2014. – № 7. – P. 48-53.
  2. State program of infrastructure development “Nurly Zhol”for 2015-2019. Approved by the decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated April 6, 2015 № 1030
  3. Presidential decree of may 30, 2013, № 577 Concept of Kazakhstan’s transition to a ” Green economy»
  4. Towards a green economy: ways to sustainable development and poverty eradication (synthesis report for government representatives), UNEP, 2011, [Electronic resource]. URL: http:// www.unep.org/greeneconomy (reference date: 11.03.2016)
The name of the author: Bekbulatova HT A. T. E. A. Shayakhmetova

Technology and prospects of solar energy use

This article discusses the use of solar energy, a comparative analysis of different ways to convert solar energy into electricity.

The problem of development of non-traditional and renewable energy sources is becoming increasingly urgent. Unconventional renewable energy sources include solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and ocean energy.

In the last decade, interest in renewable energy sources has been growing steadily, as they are virtually unlimited. As fuel supplies become less reliable and more expensive, these sources become more attractive and more economical. The increase in oil and gas prices was the main reason why people turned their attention back to water, wind and Sun. Interest in the use of solar energy has increased dramatically. The potential of energy based on direct solar radiation is extremely high. The use of only 0.5% of Solar energy could fully cover the needs for the future of the world energy. The sun is a source of energy of very high power. Total 22 days of sunshine on the total power coming to Earth, equal to all the reserves of fossil fuels on the planet. In Central Asia, for every square meter of surface perpendicular to the sun’s rays, the energy drops by about 1 kW per 1 hour. This is the amount of energy it takes for a ten ton truck to accelerate from the spot to 100 km/h.

Solar energy-the kinetic energy of radiation (mainly light), formed as a result of reactions in the bowels of the Sun, its reserves are practically inexhaustible. In natural ecosystems, only a small fraction of solar energy is captured and stored as potential energy from organic matter. Their decomposition meets the energy needs of all other components of ecosystems. Regardless of whether we use solar energy or not, it will not affect the energy balance of the Earth and the state of the biosphere.

The use of solar energy can be beneficial in several ways. First, its replacement of fossil fuels reduces air and water pollution. Second, replacing fossil fuels means reducing fuel imports, especially oil. Third, by replacing nuclear fuel, we reduce the threat of nuclear proliferation. Finally, solar sources can provide us with some protection, reducing our dependence on uninterrupted fuel supply. There is no doubt that some damage to the environment can also be caused by the extraction of ore, the manufacture of batteries and a much larger number of wires and transmission lines needed to collect electricity from its many sources. But in General, if we take into account all the costs of environmental protection, they will be very small.

Solar energy must be captured on a relatively large area, concentrated and converted into a form that can be used for industrial, domestic and transport needs. In addition, it is necessary to be able to store solar energy to maintain energy supply at night and on cloudy days. These difficulties and the costs necessary to overcome them have led to the view of the impracticality of this energy resource, at least today. However, in many cases the problem is exaggerated. The main thing is to use solar energy so that its cost is minimal or even zero. As technologies improve and traditional energy resources become more expensive, this energy will find new applications.

Light radiation can be captured directly when it reaches the Earth. This is called direct use of solar energy. The first attempts to use solar energy on a commercial basis date back to the 80s of the twentieth century. The biggest success in this area was achieved by Loose industries (USA). In 1989, it put into operation a solar gas station with a capacity of 80 MW. In California in 1994. another 480 MW of electric power has been introduced, and the cost of 1 kW/h of energy is 7-8 cents. This is lower than at traditional stations. The power plant in California has demonstrated that gas and the Sun as the main sources of the near future can effectively complement each other. At night and in winter, energy is provided by gas, and in summer and in the daytime by the Sun. The first efficient solar water heater was invented in 1909.

In practice, solar radiation can be converted into electricity directly or indirectly. Indirect conversion can be done by concentrating radiation with tracking mirrors to convert water into steam and then using steam to generate electricity in conventional ways. This system can only work in direct sunlight. Direct conversion of solar energy into electrical energy can be carried out using the photoelectric effect. Elements made of a special semiconductor material, such as silicone, under direct solar irradiation detect a difference in the voltage on the surface, i.e. the presence of an electric current. A method of using solar energy without the use of a battery system based on the conversion of the temperature difference on the surface and in the depths of the ocean into electrical energy is proposed.

American experts consider promising solar thermal energy, for the production of which solar reflectors are used, collecting and concentrating heat and light, through which water is heated. Thus, in Russia, at the Kovrov mechanical plant (Zhukovsk), solar thermal collectors are produced for heating water with a capacity of up to 100 thousand m3 per year.

The cost of solar panels is rapidly decreasing. So, in 1970 1kW. hours of electricity generated through them, was worth 60 dollars in 1980 to 1 dollar, now it is 20-30 cents). Due to this, the demand for solar panels is growing by about 25% per year, the annual volume of sales exceeds (capacity) 40 MW. The efficiency of solar cells, which reached 18% in the mid-1970s under laboratory conditions, is currently 28.5% for elements made of crystalline silicon and 35% of two – layer plates made of gallium arsenide and gallium antipode. Promising elements of thin-film (1-2 µm) semiconductor materials have been developed. Their efficiency does not exceed 16% even in the laboratory. However, it is desirable to reduce the cost of their not more than 10% of the cost of modern solar panels.

These elements can be used for heat supply (hot water supply, heating), drying of various products and materials, in agriculture, in technological processes in industry.

Most solar heating installations are equipped with a solar collector. Only in the USA solar collectors with an area of 10 million m2 are operated, which provides annual fuel savings of up to 1.5 million tons.

It seems that the direct conversion of solar energy will be the cornerstone of the energy system. Although photovoltaic solar systems are currently ineffective and their energy is 4 times more expensive than solar thermal, they are nevertheless used in many remote areas. It is likely that the cost of electricity produced by this method will quickly decrease. In the near future, there may be systems with an efficiency approaching 20%, and by the end of this decade, scientists hope to bring the cost of 1 kW. h electricity up to 10 cents.

The energy of the Sun, experts believe, is the quintessence of energy, since photovoltaic installations do not affect the natural environment, are silent, have no moving parts, require minimal maintenance, do not need water. They can be installed in remote or arid areas, ranging from a few watts (portable communication and measuring modules) to many megawatts (several million square meters).

Technically the concentration of solar radiation can be accomplished using various optical elements, mirrors, lenses, fibers, etc., the Primary energy rate of the concentrator solar radiation is the concentration factor.

The most cost – effective way to use solar energy is to direct it to secondary forms of energy in the solar areas of the globe. The resulting liquid or gaseous fuel can be piped or transported by tankers to other areas.

A review of various alternative energy sources shows that solar panels are on the threshold of large-scale industrial implementation. If we add to this energy saving, there is hope to solve the emerging energy problems, so as to significantly reduce the construction of new nuclear and thermal power plants. As for the distant future, the first step is to develop systems for storing energy produced by solar and wind power stations.

To collect and use the energy of the sun to heat water, solar water heaters – collectors of various designs can be used. The peculiarity of the collectors is that the radiant surface is treated with components that provide maximum heat perception due to their selectivity to the thermal spectrum of the solar flux and heat the water passing through the tubes inside. Solar water heater-collector consists of a box with a coil, a tank of cold water, a tank-accumulator and pipes. The box is permanently installed at an angle of 30-500 with orientation to the South side. Cold, heavier, water is constantly supplied to the lower part of the box, where it is heated and displaced by cold water enters the storage tank. It can be used for heating, shower or other household needs.

To heat 100 liters of water, the solar installation must have 2-3 m2 of solar collectors. This water heating installation on a Sunny day will provide water heating to a temperature of 90°C. in winter – up to 50°C.

In climatic conditions of Central Asia solar water heaters-collectors are especially effective.

Flat solar water heater-collector is a flat heat-absorbing panel-absorber, with an area of 1-2 m2, in which there are channels for liquid. The surface of this panel facing the Sun is black for better heating. To reduce heat losses, it is installed in a body made in the form of a flat frame. The bottom panel is insulated, and the top is protected by transparent insulation-special glass, plastic or film.

Any metal or plastic sheet with coolant channels can be used as a heat-receiving panel. Metal absorbers are made of aluminum or steel of two types: sheet-pipe and stamped panels (pipe in sheet). Plastic panels are not widely used due to the rapid aging under the influence of sunlight and low thermal conductivity.

To achieve higher coolant temperatures, the surface of the panel is covered with spectral-selective layers that actively absorb short-wave radiation from the sun and reduce its own thermal radiation in the long-wave part of the spectrum. Layers are created on the basis of” black Nickel”,” black chrome”, copper oxide on aluminum, copper oxide on copper.

Another way to improve the performance of flat collectors is to create a vacuum between the heat-receiving panel and transparent insulation to reduce heat loss (fourth generation vacuum solar collectors).

In the vacuum water heater-collector, the volume in which the black surface absorbing solar radiation is located is separated from the environment by a cumulated space, which allows almost completely eliminating heat losses to the environment due to thermal conductivity and convection. Radiation losses are largely suppressed by the use of selective coating. Since the total loss coefficient in the vacuum collector is small, the coolant can be heated to temperatures of 120-160°C.

There are several types of vacuum solar water heaters-collectors:

Vacuum solar water heater-low pressure collector (open circuit) with thermosyphon system.

Thermosiphon systems work on the principle of the phenomenon of natural convection, when the warm water goes up. In thermosyphon systems, the tank must be located above the collector. When the water in the collector tubes is heated, it becomes lighter and naturally rises to the top of the tank. Meanwhile, the cooler water in the tank flows down into the tubes, thus starting to circulate throughout the system. In small systems, the tank is combined with the collector and is not designed for the main pressure, so thermosyphon systems should be used either with the supply of water from the above container, or through pressure reducing gearboxes.

Vacuum solar water heater – manifold of main pressure, thermosyphon with built-in heat exchanger

Thermosyphon with built-in heat exchanger provides the ability to work at main pressure. The heat carrier is heated through a heat exchanger from a spiral copper pipe located inside the heat accumulator. The principle of operation of this type of solar water heater is the same as that of a conventional low-pressure thermosyphon.

But instead of using water directly in the heat accumulator, the main pressure collector uses a copper spiral heat exchanger in the tank. The advantage is that the system can be used with low water quality, because there is virtually no corrosion and scale formation inside the vacuum tubes and heat accumulator. For areas with low temperatures, the heat accumulator is filled with antifreeze.

The most effective and common solar water heaters. Easily integrated into existing heating or hot water systems. Suitable for all types of climate and recommended for areas with low temperatures (up to -50°C) and low values of solar radiation. Equipped with a controller, the collector automatically maintains the most optimal circulation parameters, has an anti-freezing mode, provides a predetermined temperature. In case of insufficient solar activity, the controller may include an additional electric heater installed in the heat accumulator.

Literature

  1. Mussky S. A. 100 great wonders of technology.- M.: Veche, 2002. – 432 p.
  2. Balanchivadze, V. I., Baranovsky A. I., etc./ edited by A. F. Dyakova. Energy today and tomorrow. – Moscow: Energoatomizdat, 1990. – 344 p.
  3. More than sufficient. Optimistic view of the future of the world energy / Per. with English. R. Clark, ed.. – Moscow: Energoatomizdat, 1984. – 215 p.
  4. Energy source. Facts, problems, solutions. – Moscow: Science and technology, 1997. – 110 p.
  5. Kirillin V. A. Power. The main problems: in questions and answers. – M.: Knowledge, 1990. – 128 sec
Surname of author: А.Е. Карманов, , К.Н. Попик, А.И. Глазырин

Fund for the conservation of biodiversity of Kazakhstan

Will the green economy help to overcome the threat of global warming? How will the rise in temperature affect the economy and why do we need a transition to low-carbon development?

This and other things we talk with the Director of the Department of Kyoto Protocol of the Ministry of environmental protection Telebeam Akjigitova by Adilov.

– Why is the transition to low-carbon development important for Kazakhstan? What opportunities and prospects are opening up for Kazakhstan?

– Climate change has become the main challenge for humanity, and we need to prepare for the present and future risks and threats, because this problem will affect not only the environment, but also the socio-economic development of the country. According to experts, the consequences of climate change in Kazakhstan will be the shift to the North of the boundaries of humidification zones, the increase in desert, degraded lands, the reduction of biological diversity. Already, the area of glaciers is rapidly decreasing, mudflow and landslide activity is increasing.

Kazakhstan has made voluntary commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 15 and 25 per cent by 2020 and 2050, respectively, compared to the baseline year of 1992. The development of renewable energy sources-water, sun, wind and biomass – will not only reduce the environmental burden, but will give impetus to new wind, hydro, solar, service companies. The production of goods and services with high added value will increase, new green jobs will be created. The strengthening of energy efficiency and energy saving standards in production, transport, housing and communal services will always have a positive impact on the quality and cost of goods and services. Development and implementation of low-carbon technologies will open a huge potential for Kazakhstan’s business, attract investment in the country.

Many developed countries have already developed national strategies for low-carbon development, and Kazakhstan should be involved in the international process of setting new standards and norms for resource conservation.

The relevance of low-carbon development is emphasized in the world at the highest political level: meetings of the Group of 20, The G8, the Conference of the parties to the UN framework Convention on climate change, and other international meetings. This is confirmed by the 7th pan-European conference of environment Ministers, which was held in Astana on September 21-23 this year.

– How will the decisions taken at the 7th pan-European conference of environment Ministers affect the prospects of low-carbon development in Kazakhstan?

– The conference adopted the Ministerial Declaration ” Save water-take care of nature!”, in which the countries of Europe, North America, Caucasus and Central Asia were called upon to close environmental cooperation in the management of water resources, improvement of water supply, sanitation, as well as to intensify the transition to an environmental economy. The countries were offered mechanisms of “greening” of the economy, the possibility of resource efficiency for sustainable development, attracting investment in the green economy. The delegates of the conference approved the green bridge partnership program, and for the first time within the framework of the environment for Europe program, 20 countries and 4 organizations committed to 75 specific actions to improve water resources, which are aimed at solving the problems of water and ecosystems, water and health, access to water and sanitation, adaptation to climate change.

Kazakhstan’s participation in the European process makes it possible to receive intellectual, technological and financial assistance not only from developed countries, but also from international organizations. For example, the United Nations development Programme supports our efforts to develop strategic documents that enable a smooth transition from a brown to a green economy. At the international level, financial assistance will be provided to countries through the emerging global carbon Fund.

Kazakhstan’s participation in the interregional and global movement for greening the economy will contribute to a radically new attitude of the state, business, society to natural resources as a source of economic and social benefits.

– What can be said about the Astana initiative “Green bridge”?

The Astana initiative can be called an analogue of the concept of low-carbon development, but at the interregional level. Therefore, the goals, objectives and activities of the initiative fully coincide with the priorities of the low-carbon economy of Kazakhstan. Within the framework of the Astana initiative, it is planned to create an international center and a regional network of green technology transfers. This is a unique opportunity for developing countries, including Kazakhstan, to obtain resource-saving technologies, best practices and scientific knowledge for low-carbon development. In addition, our country can receive advice from leading experts in the preparation and implementation of long-term programs of “green” business in various sectors of the economy, national strategies on climate change and its consequences.

The theme of low-carbon economy was devoted to a side event “Astana initiative: Kazakhstan and low-carbon development”, organized by the Ministry of environmental protection of Kazakhstan and the UN development Programme in the framework of the 7th Ministerial conference of the environment. The participants were presented the directions of the Astana initiative, the Plan of low-carbon development of Kazakhstan until 2050, as well as the Russian experience in the field of energy efficiency as the main engine of resource saving.

– Is our state, business and society ready to support the idea of “green” growth?

– At the international and state level, Kazakhstan has already supported the idea of “green” growth. This is confirmed by the active participation and holding of two Ministerial conferences of the Asia-Pacific region in 2010 and the European one in 2011, as well as the nomination of the Astana initiative “Green bridge”. The idea of ” green growth “is implemented by the state program” Zhasyl Damu”, laws on energy efficiency, development of renewable energy. Also, A plan for low-carbon development of Kazakhstan until 2050 has been developed, reflecting the main directions of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. It is obvious that significant financial resources will be needed to promote the idea of green growth. But the long-term prospect of obtaining social and economic benefits in the form of improving the quality of life of Kazakhstan and the stability of the economy should be decisive.

Business should also be interested in the idea of “green” growth, because it is associated with improving the efficiency of resource allocation, the creation of new “green” jobs and industries with high added value, the development of advanced production technologies.

Many advanced countries are gradually abandoning the import of coal and oil in favor of clean energy – wind, sun. Therefore, in the future, the volume of Kazakhstan’s exports of fossil fuels can be significantly reduced. And business takes this into account. At the same time, there is already a great interest of foreign investors in the development of renewable energy in Kazakhstan. We expect that the projects will be implemented in the near future as soon as the tariff policy is approved.

Civil society, through representatives of non-governmental organizations, is also involved in the development of green growth policies. Representatives of environmental NGOs participated in the development of the Astana initiative. Environmental NGOs were also among the official delegates of the 7th European Ministerial conference.

Ordinary citizens of our country are indirectly involved in resource saving through the system of differentiation of utility tariffs. But this is not enough, it is necessary from a young age to cultivate a policy of “green growth”. Each person at his level can contribute, starting with careful consumption of water, heat and electricity.

Ayman Tynyshpaeva, Astana
Source: the website of the newspaper”Liter” Astana initiative can be called an analogue of the concept of low-carbon development, but at the interregional level. Therefore, the goals, objectives and activities of the initiative fully coincide with the priorities of the low-carbon economy of Kazakhstan. Within the framework of the Astana initiative, it is planned to create an international center and a regional network of green technology transfers. This is a unique opportunity for developing countries, including Kazakhstan, to obtain resource-saving technologies, best practices and scientific knowledge for low-carbon development. In addition, our country can receive advice from leading experts in the preparation and implementation of long-term programs of “green” business in various sectors of the economy, national strategies on climate change and its consequences.

The theme of low-carbon economy was devoted to a side event “Astana initiative: Kazakhstan and low-carbon development”, organized by the Ministry of environmental protection of Kazakhstan and the UN development Programme in the framework of the 7th Ministerial conference of the environment. The participants were presented the directions of the Astana initiative, the Plan of low-carbon development of Kazakhstan until 2050, as well as the Russian experience in the field of energy efficiency as the main engine of resource saving.

– Is our state, business and society ready to support the idea of “green” growth?

– At the international and state level, Kazakhstan has already supported the idea of “green” growth. This is confirmed by the active participation and holding of two Ministerial conferences of the Asia-Pacific region in 2010 and the European one in 2011, as well as the nomination of the Astana initiative “Green bridge”. The idea of ” green growth “is implemented by the state program” Zhasyl Damu”, laws on energy efficiency, development of renewable energy. Also, A plan for low-carbon development of Kazakhstan until 2050 has been developed, reflecting the main directions of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. It is obvious that significant financial resources will be needed to promote the idea of green growth. But the long-term prospect of obtaining social and economic benefits in the form of improving the quality of life of Kazakhstan and the stability of the economy should be decisive.

Business should also be interested in the idea of “green” growth, because it is associated with improving the efficiency of resource allocation, the creation of new “green” jobs and industries with high added value, the development of advanced production technologies.

Many advanced countries are gradually abandoning the import of coal and oil in favor of clean energy – wind, sun. Therefore, in the future, the volume of Kazakhstan’s exports of fossil fuels can be significantly reduced. And business takes this into account. At the same time, there is already a great interest of foreign investors in the development of renewable energy in Kazakhstan. We expect that the projects will be implemented in the near future as soon as the tariff policy is approved.

Civil society, through representatives of non-governmental organizations, is also involved in the development of green growth policies. Representatives of environmental NGOs participated in the development of the Astana initiative. Environmental NGOs were also among the official delegates of the 7th European Ministerial conference.

Ordinary citizens of our country are indirectly involved in resource saving through the system of differentiation of utility tariffs. But this is not enough, it is necessary from a young age to cultivate a policy of “green growth”. Each person at his level can contribute, starting with careful consumption of water, heat and electricity.

Ayman Tynyshpaeva, Astana
Source: Website of the newspaper “Liter»

Added: 14.12.2018
Modifited: 13.12.2018