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Как в Астане будут избавляться от смога

Столицу ожидает постепенный переход на новую энергетическую модель. Будут организованы общественные слушания с участием международных экспертов и «зеленых» активистов, сообщает Zakon.kz со ссылкой на медиацентр акимата Астаны.

По данным территориального департамента экологии Министерства энергетики, а также РГП «Казгидромет», с 13 декабря над Астаной установился антициклон, который характеризуется отсутствием ветра, что является нехарактерным для этого времени года. Основной причиной смога являются выхлопные газы автомобильного транспорта (53%), а также частный сектор, отапливающий дома углем.

С учетом актуальности данного вопроса проблема была комплексно рассмотрена в ходе аппаратного совещания. Акимом города были заслушаны отчеты руководителей территориального департамента экологии Министерства энергетики Республики Казахстан, управления природных ресурсов и регулирования природопользования, экологической полиции, РГП «Казгидромет» о реализации Комплексного плана мероприятий по оздоровлению окружающей среды столицы.

Для улучшения экологической ситуации в рамках реализации плана мероприятий на ТЭЦ-1 будет установлено экологическое оборудование, а также модернизированы четыре котлоагрегата на ТЭЦ-2. Уже в этом году проводятся работы по замене первого котла, их планируется завершить в январе. Второй котел будет заменен до конца 2018 года, третий и четвертый – в 2019 году.

Как сообщил руководитель управления природных ресурсов и регулирования природопользования М. Танабаев, были проведены рейды по частному сектору, по итогам которых установлено, что использование шин, пластмасс и покрышек для отопления не допущено. При этом выяснилось, что некоторые граждане используют для отопления уголь низкого качества. По этому поводу проводится экспертиза.

Между тем, как подчеркнул аким столицы, принимаемых экологических мер недостаточно, и ситуация показывает, что необходимо пересмотреть подходы к сохранению окружающей среды.

«Необходимо внести предложение по ужесточению экологического законодательства, а также перестроить работу всех существующих структур в городе. Экология является одним из основных приоритетов в работе акимата на 2018 год. Мы создадим специальную комиссию, куда будут привлечены независимые эксперты, активисты, ученые, а также проведем ряд общественных слушаний», – сказал в этой связи А. Исекешев.

По его словам, работа будет вестись в двух направлениях. Первое – в рамках Комплексного плана необходимо разработать новые меры и механизмы по контролю качества ГСМ и угля, рассмотреть возможность увеличения штрафных санкций в отношении нарушителей экологического законодательства.

Второе направление касается работы транспорта. Здесь речь идет и о качестве ГСМ, и о переходе на новые стандарты, запрете ввоза и эксплуатации на территории города старых машин, загрязняющих воздух. В настоящее время количество автомобилей в Астане составляет 350 тыс. единиц (400 тыс. с учетом транзитного транспорта). 50% веществ, загрязняющих воздух в столице, приходится именно на автомобильный транспорт. Поэтому, продолжил аким города, в столице нужно разработать новые меры, возможно, внести изменения в законодательство.

По словам А. Исекешева, будет продолжена работа по газификации Астаны. За счет сжижженного газа уже сейчас отапливается Назарбаев Университет, вопрос проведения магистрального газопровода прорабатывается в правительстве. Акимат, в свою очередь, завершает разработку ТЭО-проекта.

Кроме того, в рамках Комплексного плана акиматом реализуются два проекта: управление тепловыми потоками и пересматриваются СНиПы, которые позволят сэкономить около 800 Гкал в месяц.

«В первую очередь нам необходимо разработать новую систему анализа и мониторинга, которая показывала бы полные данные о качестве воздуха и наличии в нем различных вредных выбросов в разных районах города. Для этого нужно привлечь международных экспертов (ООН, Всемирный банк и другие) и «зеленых активистов», мы уже проводим с ними переговоры», – сказал связи с этим А. Исекешев.

Что касается долгосрочной перспективы, аким города поручил разработать проект Стратегии низкоуглеродного развития, которая предусматривает сокращение вредных выбросов, активную работу по энергоэффективности и развитию альтернативных источников энергии. Тем самым в Астане создается новая энергетическая модель города.

В настоящее время городская ТЭЦ вырабатывает 2 300 Гкал, тогда как в перспективе городу понадобится 6 тыс. Гкал. По мнению городских властей, развитие города при прежней энергетической модели с использованием угля невозможно.

«Учитывая, что экология становится одним из ключевых показателей качества жизни, необходимо провести несколько общественных слушаний, круглых столов, посвященных этой теме. В новой экологической программе будут разработаны долгосрочные, среднесрочные и краткосрочные цели, новые индикаторы, механизмы и инструменты. Важным направлением программы станет также переход на принципы низкоуглеродного развития, газификации столицы, технологии использования «чистого угля», энергоэффективности зданий», – заключил Асет Исекешев

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Солнечные навесы, которые производят энергию и питьевую воду

Каждый фотоэлектрический навес поставляется с 15-летней гарантией, а его стоимость зависит от размеров и начинается от 1500 долларов.
Два индийских предпринимателя разработали устройство под названием Ulta Chaata, которое, по их утверждению, является «самой передовой интегрированной системой plug and play» для создания затенения, сбора воды и выработки энергии.
Солнечные козырьки и навесы, которые могут обеспечить создание тени от палящего солнца и одновременно преобразовывать его излучение в электричество для обеспечения потребностей близлежащей инфраструктуры или отправки в централизованную — это не новинка. Однако стартап ThinkPhi со своим флагманским продуктом пошел дальше и выпустил Solar Shed Model 1080, которая не только производит «чистую» электроэнергию (и хранит ее в интегрированных батареях), но также способна собирать и фильтровать дождевую воду.
Установка, крыша которой немного напоминает вывернутый зонт, оснащена солнечными панелями и навесом в виде воронки, форма которого идеально подходит для сбора дождевой воды. Также система оснащена фильтровальной камерой и имеет ряд встроенных ламп для создания автономного освещения. Самая большая из моделей – 1080XL – имеет высоту 8 метров и крышу размером 20×20 метров и, по заявлению разработчиков, способна выдавать 45 кВт пиковой мощности, а также собирать и фильтровать сотни тысяч литров воды в год в зависимости от количества местных осадков.
Солнечный навес оборудован центральной операционной системой под названием «phi-box», которая может управлять несколькими устройствами. Датчики, встроенные в каждый навес, получают данные из окружающей среды, рассчитывают количество собранных ресурсов и предупреждают оператора через мобильное приложение в случае какого-либо сбоя в системе.
Продукт компании, как нельзя лучше подходящий для таких стран как Индия с ее высокой инсоляцией и обильными сезонными дождями, может применяться в самых разнообразных направлениях: от небольших тентов в частных домах до создания огромных автобусных или железнодорожных остановок. Одним из наиболее оптимальных решений, по мнению авторов проекта, может стать использование таких навесов на парковочных стоянках для зарядки электромобилей, хотя конкретные данные о эффективности солнечных панелей устройства ими не сообщаются.
Компания говорит, что уже продала 200 установок и ожидает, что к концу 2017 года их число возрастет до 500.

Источник: greenevolution.ru

Government considers the implementation of infrastructure projects under the State Program “Nurly Zhol”

The Minister of National Economy T. Suleimenov reported that for the implementation of the State program in 2017 484.2 billion tenge is provided at the expense of all sources. The funds are allocated for the implementation of projects in such areas as the development of transport and logistics and industrial infrastructure, the modernization of heat, water and sanitation, the development of education infrastructure, co-financing projects with MFIs.

The Minister for Investment and Development of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Zhenis Kassymbek reported on the implementation of road projects, the development of transport and logistics potential, as well as measures to increase freight and passenger traffic in rail and air transport.

In general, it was noted that the large-scale implementation of infrastructure projects within the framework of the “Nurly Zhol” program will allow increasing the speed of transportation, reducing transportation costs, improving the service and implementing transit potential, which will positively affect the growth of business activity, productivity and socio-economic development of Kazakhstan.

The meeting was addressed by the Minister of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan Y. Sagadiyev, the Chairman of the Board of Samruk-Kazyna JSC U. Shukeyev, the Vice Minister of Finance of the Republic of Kazakhstan T. Savelyeva, the Deputy Chairman of the Baiterek Holding A. Arifkhanov, the Akims of Zhambyl and Akmola regions K. Kokrekbayev and M. Murzalin.

Summing up the consideration of the issue, Prime Minister of the Republic of Kazakhstan Bakytzhan Sagintayev instructed the Ministry of National Economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan, in conjunction with the Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Kazakhstan and program administrators, to keep the issue of timely development of budget funds and implementation of projects under constant control.

Kazakhstan pays great attention to urbanization processes – expert

Industrial and innovative development path chosen by Kazakhstan will inevitably lead to the acceleration of urbanization processes, the rapid growth of urban population of the country at the expense of the active migration of rural population to the cities in the near future. This natural process will be accompanied by an increase in labor productivity, as much of the urbanized rural areas get jobs at the enterprises of the industrial sector, where productivity is traditionally higher than in the agricultural enterprises. Thus, according to Zh.Kulekeyev, urbanization will increase the country’s competitiveness in the global space.

Most of the cities of Kazakhstan were formed in the Soviet period as a result of industrialization and the discovery and development of mineral deposits. The number of cities in Kazakhstan increased from 19 to 82 from 1920 to 1983, which led to a sharp increase in the proportion of urban residents. However, a fact extremely low rate of urbanization has become characteristic of the country over the 25 years of Kazakhstan’s independence; the proportion of rural residents (43%) is still maintained at a high level. It should be noted that the urban population was reduced in the period from 1993 to 2013, and there has been even reverse migration from cities to villages in some years.

According to Zh.Kulekeyev, this process has been associated with the open economic policy carried out in the country since the first days of independence, resulting in many manufacturing industries, located mainly in the southern regions of the country, unable to withstand the competition, were forced to either reduce production or completely stop its production. As a result of these circumstances, people who lost their jobs in the cities began to move en masse to the countryside, swelling the ranks of the self-employed.

The turning point was reached in 2013, beginning this year a steady growth of the urban population in Kazakhstan is observed. According to the expert, the implementation of the State program of industrial-innovative development played the positive role, as the number of employed people in the industry over the years of implementation of the program has increased by about 150 thousand people, and those employed in agriculture decreased by 900 thousand.

The government is planning to increase the share of urban population to 70% in 2030  (currently 53%). According to the expert there are objective prerequisites for that.

Currently, the second five-year industrialization program is implemented in the country, the course of implementation inspires optimism. For example, in the first year of implementation of the Programme of tools of SPIID created almost 34,000 new permanent jobs, most of which relate to the manufacturing industry. The second sector, which attracts a large number of workers, it  is trade and consumer services.

Lowering of the environmental impact and transparency of activities

On July 21, at the collegium of the Environmental Regulation and Supervision Committee of the Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan were considered issues on improving of the environment condition, lowering the emissions level, optimization and transparency of public services and control activities.

According to the results of the first half of 2017, the positive dynamics of lowering of emission limits in North Kazakhstan (25%), Kyzylorda (23%), West Kazakhstan and Zhambyl oblasts (17%), Kostanai (7% ), Mangistau oblast (5%), in the capital 19% and in Almaty 8% was noted in the course of the work of the collegium.

Also, the bill for optimizing public services in the sphere of issuing permits for emissions and environmental assessment certificate was discussed.

So, for the convenience of users, it is planned to reduce the steps of public services from 5 to 2 and to reduce the duration of their performance fourfold from 180 to 45 days.
By that, we unite the public services for issuing permits for emissions with project environmental impact assessment, which will positively affect on rankings indicators in “Doing Business», it is principle aimed at  relieving business operations in the Republic of Kazakhstan.

In the past half-year, the Ministry of Energy initiated the development of environmental targets for each oblast. They will allow to determine admissible volume of contaminants emissions in the oblast and to develop a plan of environmental protection measures to solve environmental problems.

Scientific developments in this direction are already being conducted in all regions, except Akmola, Kyzylorda and South Kazakhstan oblasts, where the akimats not allocated the financial resources for these purposes. Definitely, the obtained results will be used for improving the ecological state of the country’s regions.

The reduction by 2/3 of the number of selective inspections of the state environmental control for the second half of the year is the important result of the department’s work.

Now, the implementation of control functions is aimed at reducing the number of inspections and transition to the address inspections of natural resource users, whose activities connected with the significant risk of environmental pollution.

The project environmental impact assessment of large-scale natural resource users will be conducted with the participation of Expert Councils, which will include representatives of public associations, non-governmental organizations, scientific institutions, independent experts and mass media. The public hearings will be an obligatory step, where the opinion of the citizens and the public will be taken into account when discussing these projects.

According to the result of the work of the collegium, the head of the department gave precise instructions to the heads of regional offices, directed to ensure the transparency of their activities, to get going the feedback with the citizens and maximum public involvement in public services performance and environmental control.

 Also, the priorities of the department are the necessity of intensification of work to reduce the environmental burden on the environment, improving the effectiveness of environmental protection measures by natural resource users.

The necessity of focusing on environmental problems of the regions, detection and restrain of violations in the sphere of the environment protection, as well as the regular work on modernization and improvement of the environmental law is specified.

 In general, the department’s activities will be aimed at the improving of the environment condition and effective solution of the environmental problems, as well as eliminating corruption risks by ensuring transparency of environmental control functions and simplifying the processes of providing public services.

Green economy is economy of the future!

The concept of “green” economy is being used in society more often. After the Summit “Rio + 20” President of our state gave a high priority to this direction as one of the key factors of the further development of the state. This article will reveal the meaning of this concept, it’s main directions and details.

What is green economy?

Nowadays the society differently understands the meaning to the phrase “green” economy. Some persons think that this relates to new directions in economy that improve the nature of the state. The other understand it as new technologies, ecosystems which will benefit environment and nature. And there are also people who think that it is a new stage of development with the aim to create ecological products.

All of these approaches are close to the meaning. So, “green” economy means economy directed to save prosperity of the society at the expense of effective use of natural resources as well as return of product of final use to the production cycle.

First of all “green” economy is targeted on scarce consumption of the limited resources (natural resources: gas, oil) and rational use of unlimited resources.The basis of the “green” economy establishes “green” technology. By the words of experts the development of “green” economy will allow to avoid ecological crisis which affected many postindustrial countries.

Conception of Kazakhstan on transition to green economy

The main priorities in the state’s  transition to a green economy are:

1) increasing the efficiency of use of resources ( water, land , biological , etc.) and their management;

2) the modernization of existing and construction of new infrastructure ;

3) Improving the well-being of the population and quality of the environment through cost-effective ways to mitigate the pressure on the environment;

4) improve national security, including water security.

The concept of the Republic of Kazakhstan for the transition to a green economy will be implemented in three stages:

2013-2020

– During this period the main priority of the government will be optimization of the resources’ use of and improvement of environmental performance, as well as the creation of “green” infrastructure;

2020-2030 .

– on the basis of the established “green” infrastructure the national economy will be transformed , focusing on the careful use of water , encouragement and stimulation of  the development and widespread adoption of renewable energy technologies, as well as the construction of structures on the basis of high standards of energy efficiency;

2030-2050 years.

– The transition of the national economy on the principles of the so -called ” third industrial revolution” , requiring the use of natural resources, subject to their renewability and sustainability.

According to the Concept, the measures for the transition to a green economy will be implemented in the following areas: sustainable use of water resources , the development of sustainable agriculture and high-performance, energy saving and energy efficiency , the development of electric power industry, waste management system , reducing air pollution and the conservation and effective management of ecosystems.

Implementation issues of the transition to a green economy will be governed by legislative acts of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Tools for achieving specific objectives of the Concept by sector are the current program with changes and additions to the implementation of the basic lines of the Concept , such as the Programme for the development of agriculture in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2013-2020 “Agribusiness 2020” State Program of Forced Industrial – innovative Development of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2010-2014 state Program for Development of Education of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020 , program development areas , strategic plans, government agencies , industry program “Zhasyl damu” for 2010-2014 and other sectoral programs, which will be adjusted and given new emphasis on issues such as improving air quality , waste management, production and consumption , combating desertification , land degradation and improving soil fertility , the development of fisheries, aquaculture and reproduction of fish resources. The development of the State program on water resources management in 2014-2040 is also scheduled.

It is estimated that the transition into the green economy will be further increased by 3% of GDP, more than 500 thousand new jobs, new industries and services to provide universally high standards of quality of life for the population will be created.

Why social inclusion matters for green growth

Source: www.iied.org

A family in Tarialan, Uvs Province, Mongolia, uses a solar panel to generate power for their ger, a traditional Mongolian tent (Photo: UN Photo/Eskinder Debebe, Creative Commons, via Flickr)

Ordinary people in many parts of the developing world are feeling more and more left out.  While hundreds of millions have been lifted out of extreme poverty since the 1990s, particularly in places like China and Latin America, many have stayed behind.

The gap between the rich and poor has grown, and is widening. About 20 per cent of developing country populations as a whole still live on less than US$1.25 per day – at least one billion people.

Lack of income translates directly to lack of access to basic services and resources. According to the United Nations, the poorest children in developing countries are still up to three times more likely to die before their fifth birthday than children of well-off families.

Confidence has been falling in the ability of governments to manage their economies in ways that provide for a prosperous, sustainable, and healthy society. In short, these economies – whether robust or not – are not doing much for ordinary people, and policy is failing to deliver sustainable, so-called “inclusive” prosperity.

Mainstreaming green growth

One of the positive things to result from the global economic crisis of 2008 was to make the concept of “green growth” a bit more mainstream. This was mostly evident in the numerous short-term “green stimulus” packages that governments adopted to shore up weakened industries, invest in green projects and sectors, such as renewable energy, and promote both long- and short-term boosts to jobs.

The inclusive, social side of economic stimulus played a key role in ensuring successful economic turnaround, and in many respects it worked.

Giving it a historical perspective, green growth takes the economic growth model that has endured since the start of the industrial age, and seeks to turn it inside out. This has meant taking a hard look at laissez faire economics and being much more deliberate in ensuring “external” costs are fully internalised in national economies by planning more strategically.

Success is measured not only by profits and economic gain, but also by overall advances in social and environmental value, including job creation, poverty reduction, and sustainable use of natural resources.

The global community has been making great strides in promoting green growth as a smarter, better, more successful model of economic growth. But implementing it has been easier said than done. In practice, many socially inclusive initiatives have been left on the sidelines, and overarching social crisis persists.

In OECD countries, income stagnation for most of the population runs in stark contrast to soaring incomes and wealth of the elite, creating challenging conditions for democratic governance. This has in turn led to an upsurge in populist political movements – on both the left and the right.

Focus on people

In middle and low-income countries, while growth rates held up better after 2008, extreme poverty has changed little and still remains unacceptably high worldwide. In Sub-Saharan Africa in particular, growth has not brought proportionate reductions in poverty, where 388 million people still lived in poverty as of 2012.

The Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI), the Green Economy Coalition (GEC), and IIED have been working together to bring poverty, social development, and inclusive green growth to the forefront of economic debate.

Our joint report on pro-poor, inclusive green growth makes a simple argument. For green growth to really fulfil its promise, to improve on the economic growth model of the past, it needs to focus on people.

It needs to tackle the poverty, inequality, and exclusion that constrain both growth and environmental sustainability, to realise women’s and men’s aspirations, and to gain broad societal support. Without this integrated approach, stand-alone green growth projects and investments will not lead to real transformation.

Putting inclusive green growth into practice requires four basic things: inclusive governance that fosters communication between citizens and government; policies that strengthen the livelihoods of poor people, secure their rights, and ensures they benefit from green transformations; reforms to financial systems to drive investment; and tools to measure and track this progress.

Despite the odds, real successes are taking hold around the world. In South Africa, environmental job schemes provide social protection for poor people while helping to preserve wetlands and biodiversity. Indonesia has effectively slashed fossil fuel subsidies while moving the saving towards more publicly appealing health insurance and conditional cash payments for the poor.

Rwanda has piloted a model for ecotourism that shares revenues locally and improves conservation. And strong public consultation in Mexico ensured that the poorest communities benefited from new renewable energy investments.

Communities need leaders

Taking these successes much further, in 2015 the global community achieved two landmarks for sustainable development. The sustainable development goals (SDGs) provide a comprehensive framework for guiding development progress and recognise the simultaneous need for growth, prosperity, peace, environmental protection, and reducing inequality.

The Paris Agreement on climate change is the first legal instrument with global reach designed to halt planetary warming and protect the poorest people and countries from its negative impacts.

Practical strategies for promoting pro-poor socially inclusive green growth will be the subject of several major events taking place during the forthcoming Global Green Growth Week in Jeju, South Korea from September 5-9. This will bring together more than a thousand government ministers, United Nations officials, researchers, private sector leaders, and experts to move the inclusive green growth agenda forward, through new partnerships, initiatives, and commitments to action.

The progressive global agreements on the SDGs and climate change provide a strong global framework for sustainable development.

But ultimately they will not work unless national politics backs them up, and we need leaders to seize the opportunities now available at the international level to mobilise financing and make smarter, greener investments in their long-term development.

There is more need than ever to develop policies and commitments that can deliver inclusive green growth. Everyone will gain, and millions will finally escape extreme poverty – and finally feel included.

Cities are in the frontline for cutting carbon emissions, new IEA report finds

Source: www.iea.org

160601_etp2016

Cities must take the lead in the transition to a low-carbon energy sector, the International Energy Agency (IEA) said today, highlighting that urban areas account for up to two-thirds of the potential to cost-effectively reduce global carbon emissions.

In its annual report, Energy Technology Perspectives 2016 (ETP 2016), the IEA offers long-term technology pathways that could limit the global temperature increase to no more than 2°C, in line with the goals set at the Paris climate conference (COP21) in December 2015. The most cost-effective approach involves deploying low-carbon options in cities, especially in emerging and developing economies.

“Cities today are home to about half the global population but represent almost two-thirds of global  energy demand and 70% of carbon emissions from the energy sector, so they must play a leading role if COP21 commitments are to be achieved,” IEA Executive Director Fatih Birol said at the launch of the report during the Clean Energy Ministerial in San Francisco. “Because cities are centres of economic growth and innovation, they are ideal test-beds for new technologies – from more sustainable transport systems to smart grids – that will help lead the transition to a low-carbon energy sector.”

And action will need to bring global stakeholders together. Looking forward, at least two-thirds of the growth in global final energy demand to 2050 will come from cities in emerging and developing economies. Between now and 2050, a large portion of new buildings –  equivalent to 40% of the world’s current building stock – will be built in cities in emerging and developing economies which will also account for 85% of the increase in urban passenger travel globally. Without change in current policies, that increased demand for energy services would double these cities’ energy-related CO2 emissions. But many of the urban areas in these emerging economies are not yet fully built. ETP 2016 shows how they can avoid the carbon-intensive infrastructure typical of many cities in developed economies while still providing citizens access to modern energy services with the same level of comfort. International collaboration will therefore remain critical to ensure that cities around the world can draw on their respective experiences.

For instance, urban buildings provide useful space to self-generate the electricity they consume: by 2050, rooftop solar could technically meet one-third of cities’ electricity demand. And those buildings offer significant demand potential for the roll-out of the most efficient technologies, like energy-efficient windows and appliances. ETP 2016 also details how best electric vehicles and public transport can lead to a low-carbon mobility system while reducing investment needs by USD 20 trillion compared with current development trends in cities.

But while ETP 2016 shows that the COP21 goals are achievable, its Tracking Clean Energy Progress analysis reveals that progress deploying clean energy technologies worldwide is still falling worryingly short of what is needed. The IEA analysis reveals that there have been positive developments on some technologies: the total renewable energy capacity installed currently provides around 23% of global electricity generation, sustained by progress in solar PV and on-shore wind that pushed the growth of renewable energy capacity to a record high, exceeding 150 gigawatts in 2015. This is an encouraging trend in line with the 2°C goal of having in excess of two-thirds of electricity generated by renewables in 2050. China is the largest renewable energy market, accounting in 2015 for more than half of the world’s new global onshore wind capacity and one-third of the solar PV capacity installed.  The United States maintained its position as the second largest market in the world for renewable energy, sustaining a 40% growth rate in capacity additions over the past year. In ETP 2016, China and the United States collectively account for one third of the renewable energy capacity additions to 2050 that are required to be on track to meet the 2°C goal.

In parallel, the global stock of electric vehicles on the road surpassed one million in 2015, a significant milestone, albeit the current stock is still small compared to the ambitious aim of deploying over one billion electric vehicles by 2050 to achieve the 2°C goal. China and the United States were market leaders in total sales, and Norway kept its global lead in terms of market share, with almost one in four cars sold being electric, but the global share is still low, with only seven countries having more than 1% of electric vehicles in their market share.

Summarising the report’s findings, Dr. Birol concluded “COP21 could prove to be a historic turning point for radical action against climate change, and recent developments on some clean energy technologies are encouraging. However, overall progress is still too slow, and must be accelerated to avoid low fossil fuel prices becoming an obstacle to the low-carbon transition. Today’s energy market conditions will be a litmus test for governments to show how dedicated they are to turning their Paris commitments into concrete actions for a low-carbon future.”

Energy Technology Perspectives 2016 is for sale by the IEA bookshop. Accredited journalists who would like more information or who wish to receive a complimentary copy should contact press@iea.org.