- 100% +
Font size

Energy Policies of IEA Countries – Germany

 germany2013GermanyExecSumDEUTSCH Since the IEA last reviewed Germany’s energy policies in 2007, the country has taken two fundamental policy decisions that will guide its energy policy in coming decades. In September 2010, the federal government adopted the Energy Concept, a comprehensive new strategy for a long-term integrated energy pathway to 2050. Following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011, Germany decided to accelerate the phase-out of nuclear power by 2022 starting with the immediate closure of the eight oldest plants. This decision resulted in the adoption of a suite of new policy measures and determined renewable energy as the cornerstone of future energy supply, a set of policy instruments commonly known as the Energiewende.

In order to achieve the ambitious energy transformation set out in the Energiewende, by 2030 half of all electricity supply will come from renewable energy sources; Germany must continue to develop cost-effective market-based approaches which will support the forecasted growth of variable renewable generation. Furthermore, the costs and benefits need to be allocated in a fair and transparent way among all market participants, especially households.

In the future, renewable energy capacity must expand in parallel with the timely development of the transmission and distribution networks. In addition, a stable regulatory system is necessary to ensure long-term finance to network operators. Furthermore, close monitoring of Germany’s ability to meet electricity demand at peak times should continue in the medium term.

Energy policy decisions in Germany inevitably have an impact beyond the country’s borders and must be taken within the context of a broader European energy policy framework and in close consultation with its neighbours.

This review analyses the energy-policy challenges facing Germany and provides recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.

Published by



Problems of Development of Environmental Policy and Law in the Republic of Kazakhstan


Abstract: The Republic of Kazakhstan since independence has paid great attention to the protection of the environment. For these purposes, a number of regulations were adopted. For example, in 1997, three acts in field of environment protection were adopted just, one of which is the Act “On Environmental Protection in the Republic of Kazakhstan.” In subsequent years, the Concept of Ecological Safety was adopted. It served as a methodological instrument for the further development of the state of the legal framework for the protection of the environment. This article examines the problems of environmental policy issues across Kazakhstan’s independence and which need to be addressed in the present and the future.Reforming of any branch of the law can have their cycles and their patterns. Environmental legislation of Kazakhstan is not exception and has its cycles and its laws. The article highlighted three distinct phases, which are passed through the development of environmental legislation of the sovereign Kazakhstan.

Urbanization Provides Unprecedented Opportunities to Transition to a Green Economy, Says New Report

As Consumers of Over 75% of Natural Resources, Cities Are Uniquely Placed to Contribute to Efficiency and Sustainability.

Kolkata, India, credit: Radiokafta

Medellin, Colombia, 8 April 2014 – With over half of the global population now living in urban areas, cities are increasingly facing the challenge of ensuring decent standards of living for their inhabitants. Demand for a higher quality of life is increasing despite growing pressures on natural resources and ecosystems.In this context, a new report launched jointly today by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and Cities Alliance at the 2014 World Urban Forum finds that the rapid pace of urbanization represents an opportunity to build more sustainable, innovative and equitable towns and cities, and to use the world’s natural resources more efficiently.

The report, entitled, Integrating the Environment in Urban Planning and Management: Key Principles and Approaches for Cities in the 21st Century, offers strategies for decision-makers to introduce measures that can spur inclusive economic growth and reduce poverty, while ensuring sustainable levels of consumption and production.

“It is clear that the decisions and actions needed to move society towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production will need to focus on, and be delivered in, cities,” said UN Under-Secretary-General and UNEP Executive Director Achim Steiner.

“Cities are well-placed to play a major role in decoupling economic development from resource use and environmental impacts, while finding a better balance between social, environmental and economic objectives,” he added.

Urban areas occupy just 2 per cent of the world’s population but consume up to 75 per cent of its natural resources. In addition, estimates indicate that cities are responsible for 75 per cent of global CO2 emissions, with transport and buildings being among the largest contributors.

“It is essential that national governments create the space for cities to play a much larger role in transforming unsustainable patterns of human development,” said William Cobbett, Director of Cities Alliance.

“As we have witnessed in Medellin, local actions which directly engage and benefit communities can be truly transformative. However, cities need to integrate the environment into their planning before, and not after, urbanisation.”

The report notes that negative environmental impacts from cities occur both directly – through the consumption of resources and the emission of greenhouse gases in cities themselves – and indirectly, through the use of raw materials and energy in distant locations to produce goods and services.

Some of the world’s wealthiest and superficially cleanest cities may therefore concentrate the consumption of goods whose production may be elsewhere, but which entails both pollution and resource depletion.

Nevertheless, the report finds that urban areas, by their very nature, provide a range of “sustainability multipliers” that can be tapped to address social and environmental burdens. These include lower costs per capita for providing services in densely populated areas, greater options for recycling, and better opportunities for the use of public transport.

At the same time, city leaders can take a variety of proactive measures to help to improve resource efficiency and reduce negative environmental impacts. These include:

  • Mainstreaming environmental priorities into city-level and local development plans, in particular through City Development Strategies that work to reconcile urban economic growth with better resource efficiency;
  • Incorporating emerging ideas about the green urban economy, which show how density can generate environmental and social opportunities, including through green urban infrastructure;
  • Integrating greenhouse gas emissions reduction strategies in urban planning and management, which can reduce the impact that cities have on the global environment while improving the quality of life for urban residents;
  • Creating “green jobs”;
  • Undertaking environmental rehabilitation projects that can enhance ecosystem services, improving the quality of the environment while reducing costs of remedial air and water treatment;
  • Expanding access to energy through greening energy supplies, which can provide electricity to households that were previously reliant on wood or kerosene;
  • Underpinning each of these strategies with strong political support and commitment.

The report also examines practical mechanisms for funding urban environmental activities, noting that financial limitations have frequently impeded meaningful environmental activities in the past.

Notes to Editors:

About Cities Alliance

UNEP has been a member of the Cities Alliance, a global partnership for urban poverty reduction promoting and strengthening the role of cities in sustainable development, since 2003. Cities Alliance members include local authorities, national governments, non-governmental organizations and other multilateral organizations.

The Cities Alliance’s overall strategic objectives are to support cities in providing effective local government, an active citizenship and an economy characterized by both public and private investment. The Cities Alliance seeks to realize this goal by: developing and/or enhancing national policy frameworks to address urban development needs; developing and implementing local inclusive strategies and plans; strengthening the capacity of cities to provide improved services to the urban poor; and developing mechanisms to engage citizens in city or urban governance.

About This Report:

Integrating the Environment in Urban Planning and Management: Key Principles and Approaches for Cities in the 21st Century is a follow-up from a 2007 joint effort between UNEP and Cities Alliance that culminated in a publication entitled Livable Cities: the Benefits of Urban Environment Planning.

The 2007 report brought together concrete case studies from cities around the world where specific tools, metrics, and measures for strategic urban planning were used. Today’s report goes a step further by analyzing the principles and approaches that made the different tools accessible and useful to cities. Through closer examination of the City Development Strategy as a planning tool, the authors of the publication successfully describe what improves efficiency in city planning processes.

The full report is available to download at

For more information, contact:

UNEP News Desk (Nairobi) on Tel. +254 20 762 3088, E-mail:

Moira O’Brien-Malone, UNEP Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (Paris) on Tel. +33 1 44 37 76 12, E-mail:

Cities Alliance, Email:

Dr. Rene Peter Hohmann, Sr. Urban Specialist, on Tel.: +32 2 234 6370, E-mail:

– See more at:

Achievements in 2012: Strategic Initiative to Address Climate Change in Least Developed Countries


Boots on the Ground Report

Through the Strategic Initiative to Address Climate Change in LDCs, aka “Boots on the Ground” UNDP provides institutional support and capacity development services to LDC governments in the area of climate change. The objective of the project is to support 26 low-income countries, including 23 LDCs, in the climate change arena by strengthening UNDP’s capacity to deliver high-quality and timely policy advice on climate change at the country level.
Developing countries are increasingly turning their attention to the formulation of comprehensive approaches to address climate change that include both human development and economic dimensions, as well as the investment decisions that need to be made to implement these. The ability to understand and adapt to climate change impacts, and chart growth paths that are low emission and pro poor is essential.

a-pdf BootsOnTheGroundReport_2012

Resource Efficiency:Economics and Outlook for China

2711This report is intended to supplement the original Resource Efficiency: Economics and Outlook for Asia and the Pacific report (UNEP 2011). It provides more detailed data and analysis specific to China and can be thought of as a single country focus version of that report. The content of this report focusses on deepening analyses specifically relating to resource use pattern, resource efficiency, drivers of resource use, Greenhouse gas emissions and resource efficiency policy in China

Year of Publication: 2013
Author: UNEP
ISBN No: 978-92-807-3318-1
Price US $:
Stock Number: DEW/1632/BE
PDF Available at: Resource Efficiency:Economics and Outlook for China
Number of Pages: 48

Added: 29.09.2015
Modifited: 29.09.2015